Write a paper comparing and contrasting the four major classifications of drug actions on the human body (stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens, and narcotics).
Select one drug from each classification for an in-depth analysis, which should include at least:
1. the effects of those drugs on the human body,
2. A discussion of the dependence aspects of the drugs, and
3. Their interactions with other drugs
4. How this drug impacts crime in the US
This paper must be from three to five full pages of text, not including the cover page or the references page and a minimum of two scholarly sources.
Recitations using the APA Format. Sources should be summarized or paraphrased with appropriate in-text and Resource page
The major classification of drug actions on the human body includes stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens and narcotics. Different drugs have different effects on the human body and have interactions with other drugs. Different drugs also affect crime in the U.S. The paper will focus on discussing the differences in stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens and narcotics in terms of their effect on the human body, the dependence aspects of the drugs and their interaction with other drugs. To effectively, discuss one drug from the four major classifications will be analyzed in-depth to develop the paper based on comparing and contrasting the drug classifications.
Stimulants are drugs that influence the central and peripheral nervous system by increasing the levels of productivity, awareness and alertness. Cocaine is a major example of a stimulant and will be discussed in-depth to show differentiating features of stimulants. Cocaine is known as one of the most addictive stimulants which can be taken through smoking, injection and even snorting. Cocaine influences the human body by stopping the dopamine from re-entering the neurons, thereby keeping the dopamine in the synapse longer. As a result, the dopamine overstimulates the neurons and increases the brain and spinal cord activity, as well as the heartbeat. Cocaine also causes a lack of wanting to eat or sleep, which are essential needs for the body to stay healthy.
In terms of the dependence aspects of cocaine, it is highly addictive, and people hardly recognize the addiction as it sets in. The person gets cravings for cocaine and ignores the consequences that come from the signs of addiction. From this stage, the person becomes highly dependent on the drug to function. Psychological addiction sets in when the person is in denial of the signs of addiction. The person who uses cocaine frequently will develop the dependence that translates to that they will need to use cocaine now and then to feel and function normally. It is very hard to stop, which is attributed to the fact that cocaine increases the level of dopamine in the brain and reprogram the brain reward system.
In the discussion on the interaction of cocaine and other drugs, it is notable that most people that get exposed to cocaine are in surroundings where the substances are being used. Most people who have a dependence on other substances such as alcohol and marijuana develop a dependence on cocaine when in the same surroundings. Alcohol is frequently used together with cocaine and often acts as a trigger for recovering cocaine users. The use of heroin and cocaine in a drug combination known as the speedball is considered dangerous and might have fatal consequences.
Cocaine is expensive, and most addicts spend lots of money to support their addiction habits. Therefore, when they are faced with difficulties in accessing earning opportunities, most of the addicts engage in income-producing property crime, which involves burglary, theft and robbery. In that case, it is logical to deduce that when the price of cocaine increases, there is the potential that property crime will increase for the addicts to raise enough income to support their cocaine expenditures.
Alcohol is a major example of a depressant that is widely used worldwide. It is classified as a depressant as it influences the central nervous system through slowing down the functioning of the brain and the neural activity. In the human body, slows down and block change the personal judgments, movements, senses and perceptions of the person. Alcohol dependence is described with a strong, often uncontrollable desire to drink. Dependence on alcohol experienced where a person cannot relax and enjoy their selves without having to drink; this is the most psychological dependence on alcohol. Physical dependence involves withdrawal symptoms that include shaking, sweating and nausea when the blood alcohol desire is not a certain level.
In most cases, alcohol is used together with other drug substances that include marijuana, cocaine and ecstasy. The use of alcohol increases the chances of getting exposed to other drug substances, both legal and illegal. In the U.S, robbery, sexual assault, aggravated assault, child abuse and homicide are types of crimes which are associate with alcohol, including the common crime of drinking and driving.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is considered the most powerful hallucinogen and changes the way a person perceives reality and alters moods by producing hallucinations. It is causes distortions in the perception of reality for the user, and the effects can last for 12 hours. LSD influences the receptors that regulate serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain. Serotonin is responsible for controlling behavior, perceptual and regulatory systems in the body. By the use of LSD, the system is disrupted, and the user experiences sensory hallucinations accompanied by intense emotional swings.
In terms of dependence, LSD is not a physically addictive drug; however, continuous use leads to tolerance, which makes the person take more to experience the same effects. The tolerance builds quickly, and the effects of the drugs are considered unpredictable. The interaction of LSD with other drugs is considered unpredictable and dangerous. When LSD is combined with amphetamine or ecstasy, there is increased chances of a bad trip, which can result in panic. Alcohol use that combines LSD can mostly result in nausea and vomiting.
Heroin is a narcotic drug that is illegal besides other legal pain-relieving narcotics as it is dangerous in terms of its side effects and is highly addictive. Heroin affects the human body by binding specific receptors and neurotransmitters in the brain that focus on the regulation of pain hormone release and feelings. The drug affects them, simulating the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine that overwhelms the brain with pleasurable sensations. In terms of dependence, when the overwhelming pleasures wear off withdrawal signs are experienced, and the user starts to crave another hit of the drug. As the cycle repeats, more dosage amounts are involved as stronger cravings are felt by the body to build a tolerance to the drug. The addition of heroin to other drugs and alcohol worsens the risks of health problems. The highest risk for concurrent use involving heroin can result in an overdose.
In the comparison of all the four major classifications of drugs, cocaine and heroin contributed significantly to the crime rate in the U.S than any other drugs substances. Forms of crimes that result from the abuse of these drugs include robbery, theft, child abuse, burglary and homicide. The users result in the crime when the prices of the drugs increase and when they cannot satisfy with a craving for the drugs with their current income. To cater to the drug expense, most of the drug addicts opt to engage in criminal property activity to raise the money to afford the drug. The increase in the price of cocaine and heroin will significantly lead to an increase in property crime rates in the U.S.
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Pasaribu, W. B. F., Syafruddin, K., & Madiasa, A. (2020, March). Rehabilitation System as Legal Protection Efforts for Victims of Narcotics Crime. In International Conference on Law, Governance and Islamic Society (ICOLGIS 2019) (pp. 255-258). Atlantis Press.
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