NURS 6521: Advanced Pharmacology
Week 5: Endocrine System Disorders and the Treatment of Diabetes
The endocrine system includes eight major glands throughout the body which affect such things as growth and development, metabolism, sexual function, and mood (National Institutes of Health). Some of the most commonly diagnosed endocrine disorders include hypothyroidism, diabetes, and Hashimoto’s disease. Not surprisingly, treating any one endocrine disorder may have effects on other body systems or their functions. As an advanced practice nurse, treating patients who may suffer from endocrine disorders requires an acute understanding of the structure and function of the endocrine system. Additionally, a solid understanding of patient factors and behaviors will assist in developing the best drug therapy plans possible to treat your patients. Some of most commonly diagnosed endocrine disorders include
This week, you differentiate the types of diabetes and examine the impact of diabetes drugs on patients. You also evaluate alternative drug treatments and patient education strategies for diabetes management.
Reference: National Institutes of Health. (n. d.). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders. Endocrine diseases. Retrieved July 3, 2019 from https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases
Differentiate types of diabetes
Evaluate the impact of diabetes drugs on patients
Evaluate alternative drug treatments and patient education strategies for diabetes management
Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)
Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments
Photo Credit: [Mark Hatfield]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images
Each year, 1.5 million Americans are diagnosed with diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2019). If left untreated, diabetic patients are at risk for several alterations, including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, neuropathy, and blindness. There are various methods for treating diabetes, many of which include some form of drug therapy. The type of diabetes as well as the patient’s behavior factors will impact treatment recommendations.
For this Discussion, you compare types of diabetes, including drug treatments for type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
Reference: American Diabetes Association. (2019). Statistics about diabetes. Retrieved from http://diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/statistics/
Review the Resources for this module and reflect on differences between types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
Select one type of diabetes to focus on for this Discussion.
Consider one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected, including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Then, reflect on dietary considerations related to treatment.
Think about the short-term and long-term impact of the diabetes you selected on patients, including effects of drug treatments.
By Day 3 of Week 5
Post a brief explanation of the differences between the types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected, including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Be sure to include dietary considerations related to treatment. Then, explain the short-term and long-term impact of this type of diabetes on patients. including effects of drug treatments. Be specific and provide examples.
By Day 6 of Week 5
Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected a different type of diabetes than you did. Provide recommendations for alternative drug treatments and patient education strategies for treatment and management.
Diabetes and Drug Treatments
Diabetes and Drug Treatments
Diabetes leads to poor regulation of glucose in the body. The various types include Type 1 and 2, juvenile as well as gestational diabetes. According to Dyson et al. (2018) type 1 or juvenile diabetes occurs when the pancreas is not producing insulin or secreting little to regulate glucose levels. Although the condition can develop at any age it is mostly among children, teenagers, and young adults. Conversely, type 2 diabetes is evident when the organs are unable to effectively utilize insulin and the pancreas does not compensate with sufficient insulin secretion (Reusch & Manson, 2017). Gestational diabetes involves high blood sugar levels among pregnant women only during the gestation period.
The selected condition is type 2 diabetes. The condition is treated using metformin. Patients can prepare to take the drug by first taking food to reduce the side effects. They can also slowly build up their dosage to the prescribed dose. The drug is administered by swallowing the tablet with water. It should be taken during meals to reduce negative effects. According to Dyson et al. (2018), dietary considerations for type 2 diabetes include eating complex carbohydrates such as whole wheat and avowing processed carbohydrates such as pastries and white bread. Type 2 diabetes was chosen as the condition. Metformin is used to treat the condition. Patients can reduce side effects by eating before taking the medication. They can also gradually increase their dosage to the prescribed dose. The medication is taken by swallowing the tablet with water. To reduce the negative effects, it should be taken with meals. Dietary considerations for type 2 diabetes, according to Dyson et al. (2018), include eating complex carbohydrates such as whole wheat and avoiding processed carbohydrates such as pastries and white bread.
The short-term complications include hypoglycemia, which occurs when the low blood glucose levels are low. Another short-term impact is a hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome, which occurs when the blood sugar is extremely high (Dyson et al., 2018). The long-term impact involves macrovascular complications such as partial loss of vision, kidney problems, nerve damage, heart attack and stroke (Reusch & Manson, 2017). For example, high blood sugar levels can cause cataracts or retinopathy leading to partial blindness. The drug treatment can cause negative effects including stomach upset, weight gain, metal taste, and diarrhea.
Chrvala, C. A., Sherr, D., & Lipman, R. D. (2016). Diabetes self-management education for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review of the effect on glycemic control. Patient Education and Counseling, 99(6), 926-943.
Dyson, P. A., Twenefour, D., Breen, C., Duncan, A., Elvin, E., Goff, L., … & Mellor, D. (2018). Diabetes UK evidence‐based nutrition guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 35(5), 541-547.
Reusch, J. E., & Manson, J. E. (2017). Management of type 2 diabetes in 2017: getting to the goal. Jama, 317(10), 1015-1016.