Instructions to writers: Because this is a peer response,
This was the subject under discussion:
Theory Development and Assessment
Examine the science and art of developing and evaluating theories.
Please respond to each peer individually. The following requirements must be met:
You should respond to at least two of your peers’ posts by extending, refuting/correcting, or adding nuance.
All responses must be constructive and, whenever possible, use literature.
I require this in APA format. Thank you very much!
Examine the science and art of developing and evaluating theories.
Theory development is the process of creating, modifying, or refining a theory. The stages of theory development are as follows: concept analysis, concept refinement, and how concepts are related and proposed. Theories can be descriptive, explanatory, predictive, or prescriptive. Concepts are described, observed, and named using descriptive theory. The relationships between concepts are the basis of explanatory theory. Predictive relationships are those that are causal or consequential. The activities to achieve goals are prescriptive. Based on observation and experience, an existing theory is identified, and its components are analyzed for use in a new context. Concepts, assumptions, and propositions are rethought, and a new nursing theory is created.
As scholars seek to understand and predict human behavior, the effort of humans to create theories is formalized in the sciences and social sciences (Redmond, 2022). When theories demonstrate value in explaining and/or predicting the world around us, they are still developed and adopted by others. The theorist has observed and learned from others, producing a theory that explains or predicts the theorist’s attention target (Redmond, 2022). Previous theories can also be used as the foundation for new or revised theories, possibly incorporating new discoveries, additional concepts, or different applications in the revised theory (Redmond, 2022). Additional research is required to find the answer to a question, and subsequent results allow for additions to the theory. The purpose of the Wheel of Science is to represent the process by which we seek, develop, and discover truth or knowledge (Redmond, 2022). The wheel’s four positions are hypotheses, research/observation, generalizations/deductions, and theory (Redmond, 2022). Established theory is tested for applicability to other concepts or situations, moving the wheel forward toward developing research questions and/or hypotheses. The wheel collects data and observations, generates generalizations, and then either validates/rejects the theory or proposes a revision. Theories provide a unifying framework for conducting research (Redmond, 2022). Systematic literature review articles are classified into three types: domain-based, theory-based, and method-based. These systematic literature reviews and meta-analytical reviews are becoming increasingly popular in a variety of subject areas. The goal of a theory is to specify the context or situation in which it should be applied (Redmond, 2022). Theoretical definitions description of the phenomenon. Operational definitions identification of empirical referent.
Theory evaluation is the process of systematically examining a theory. The examination includes of origins, meaning, logical adequacy, usefulness, generalizability, and testability. The purpose of theory evaluation is to identify a theory’s usefulness in guiding in practice, research, education, and administration.
Gray, J. R., Grove, S. K., & Sutherland, S. (2021). (2021). Burns and Grove’s the practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence.
Redmond, M. (2022, November 21). (2022, November 21). University Library: Iowa State University. University Library | Iowa State University. Retrieved from https://www.lib.iastate.edu/ sStudeerSnel. (2022). 3 theory development, analysis and evaluation – week 3: Theory development, analysis and evaluation. Theory. Retrieved from https://www.studocu.com/en-ca/document/algonquin-college/theory-in-nursing/3-theory-development-analysis-and-evaluation/3681589
sThe Science and Art of Theory Development and Evaluation
Examining theory development involves the integration of many categories and structures. Theory development is the product of research, which is a systematic inquiry process. Each nursing conceptual model is made up of concepts and propositions that are more abstract and general than a theory (Butts & Rich, 2015). (Butts & Rich, 2015). Theories are developed through a melding of science and art in the form of creative conversion of ideas stemming from confrontational facts observed in practice and in the literature. Theory development also may involve deductive reasoning from one or more general concepts and propositions to a specific set of concepts and propositions. In theory development, conceptual models are widely used, and they refer to the very abstract and general work from which theories are derived (Butts & Rich, 2015). (Butts & Rich, 2015). Advanced practice nurses (APNs) can create conceptual theoretical empirical structures for their own studies designed to test an existing theory. APNs certainly may construct conceptual theoretical empirical structures and conduct research independently, but they may be more successful if they form partnerships. These partnerships can be with various healthcare professionals like nurse researchers who are fully prepared to conduct research through research training in a Doctor of Philosophy degree or other educational programs.
The science and art of evaluation involve different criteria. Evaluating these structures for theory generation and theory testing is a five-step process that requires thinking critically and making judgments (Butts & Rich, 2015). (Butts & Rich, 2015). These steps are the evaluation of the conceptual theoretical and empirical linkages, evaluation of the theory, evaluation of the empirical indicators, evaluation of research findings, and evaluation of the utility and soundness of the conceptual model (Butts & Rich, 2015). (Butts & Rich, 2015). In step 1 the conceptual model is explicitly identified and a clear and concise overview of the content of the conceptual model is given. Step 2 Refers to the extent of the social and theoretical importance of the theory. Step 3 refers to the appropriateness of the empirical indicators. Step 4 refers to the extent to which the data agree with the theory. And lastly, step 5 discusses the extent to which the research supports the usefulness and soundness of the conceptual model (Butts & Rich, 2015). (Butts & Rich, 2015). A good example of this process in which we use evaluation theory is the interventions we use in our practice. Difficult interventions are commonly used in the healthcare environment. Complex intervention research can take an efficacy, effectiveness, theory-based, and systems perspective (Skivington et al., 2021). (Skivington et al., 2021). The framework used for these interventions involves a gap analysis to identify developments in the methods and practice since the previous framework was published, a full-day expert workshop, and a redraft using findings from the previous stages, followed by a final expert review (Skivington et al., 2021). (Skivington et al., 2021). The framework divides complex intervention research into four phases: development or identification of the intervention, feasibility, evaluation, and implementation (Skivington et al., 2021). (Skivington et al., 2021). To conclude, evaluation is a difficult process that involves a lot of research, conceptual models, and empirical indicators.
Butts, J. & Rich, K. (2015). (2015). Philosophies and theories for advanced nursing practice (3rd ed). (3rd ed.). Jones and Bartlett Learning. ISBN: 9781284112245
Skivington K., Matthews L., Simpson S.A., Craig P., Baird J., Blazeby J.M., Boyd K.A., Craig N., French D.P., McIntosh E., Petticrew M., Rycroft-Malone J., White M., & Moore L. (2021). (2021). A new framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions: update of Medical Research Council guidance. BMJ,30:374.