Study of the Impact of 5G and LTE on Cluster Merging Scheme in VANETs
Study of the Impact of 5G and LTE on Cluster Merging Scheme in VANETs
Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is a subclass of the mobile ad hoc network (MANET). VANET is getting progressively well known in disseminate safety messages between vehicles and roadside nodes (Nshimiyimana, Mupenzi & Kanyesheja, 2017). VANETs deal with devices within the vehicles such as cellular signal or DSRC to spontaneously transmit critical messages. Since reliability is a major concern, flooding is one of the most reliable techniques for disseminating messages. However, the technique is liable to the broadcast storm problem. Vehicles clustering can alleviate the problem by electing cluster masters (CMs) to be an intermediary node between vehicles and the cell tower. Communication between CMs and Cell tower or a roadside unite (RSU) is necessary to enhance safety and extend the road communication range. The optimization of communication between CMs can be achieved by inserting the traditional LTE or 5G communication. Since the delays incurred can affect the efficiency of disseminating safety messages, merging clusters might be required to mitigate the broadcast storm problem and improve the communication layers. This work proposes a cluster merging algorithm and the measure of its effectiveness in a 5G or LTE-assisted network. Simulation results are presented, showing the effects of latency and packet delivery ratio (PDR).
The Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is an advanced application designed to offer modern services and road management solutions for transportation safety. ITS incorporates several applications for vehicles, including safety driving and warning applications, applications for information sharing between vehicles and the internet, and up to the automated driving application. The system also provides users with instantaneous messages on road conditions and hazards (Chiti, Fantacci, Nizzi, & Pierucci, 2019). ITS relies on vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs), which is a type of mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) dedicated to improving safety and vehicle communication. MANET is self-organizing networks of mobile devices that are capable of establishing communication without relying on fixed infrastructure and free to move independently (Khan and Fan, 2018). VANETs employ the same principle of operation utilized by MANETs, but the mobile nodes are vehicles. It requires a dynamic network topology at a higher rate than in MANETs whereas, VANET is used for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) wireless communication to provide support to varies complex applications of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). The major characteristic of VANET is node mobility patterns that are correlated and constrained. Node mobility patterns mean that VANET contains an extremely time-varying network topology, with network partitioning and merging. The communication capabilities of VANET is defined by the presence of the On-board units (OBU) that are mounted in vehicles accompanied dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) is supported through standard IEEE 802.11p. The OBU provides information regarding vehicles basic such as the location of the vehicle, direction, and speed. VANET also can communicate with Road Side Unit (RSU) that are deployed on some location on the road or in the network infrastructure as an access point. Information regarding safety tools, including overtaking, braking, lane change of a vehicle, is exchanged through the RSU.
The fifth-generation network (5G) has the capability of supporting a large amount of data traffic and the massive number of wireless connectivity. On the other hand, 4G is the Long Term Evolution (LTE) wireless communications capable of providing data, multimedia streaming, and IP-based voice at speed up to 1 gigabit per second and 100 megabits per second. Both the 5G and LTE are applied in providing communication directly between devices in the vicinity by offloading eNB. LTE can be redesigned as a communication center for supporting the security of vehicles by simultaneously offering high throughputs and low latencies, resulting in increased demand of bandwidth and real-time critical services to the drivers. LTE enables the nodes to attain high mobility of up to 350 Km/h speed, which can be used for Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) communication (Xu, Li, Zhao, Zhang, & Wang, 2017). 5G capabilities include ultra-high reliable, ultra-low latency, and ultra-reliable and low-latency use-cases. The capabilities of 5G enable it to enhance the ITS as it allows Device to Device communication to turn into V2V communication (Ullah, Gopalakrishnan, Moore, Nugent, Muschamp, & Cuevas, 2019). High data rates and reduced latency associated with 5G are considered to improve the V2V communication application.
Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications is a mesh type of wireless network that allows automobiles to exchange data concerning the location of the vehicle, the current speed, the braking status, the vehicle’s direction of travel, and the stability of the vehicle. V2V communication is provided to the Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) spectrum set forth by bodies such as FCC and ISO to boost the operation of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) services (Howard, 2014). VANETs uses the proximity services offered by D2D communication to support the functioning of ITS. D2D communication is mobile, and wireless communication led a network that facilitates communication between mobile devices directly without crossing the fixed core network infrastructure. Advantages of D2D communication that makes it essential for ITS include the ability to offload eNB, enlarging the VANET coverage, improving energy efficiency, and providing high transmission rate (Kim, 2019). The cluster architecture improves the routing performance of VANETs by grouping the vehicle nodes. The clustering algorithm depends on vehicle mobility when selecting the cluster head for routing (Zhang, Ge, Zhang, Cui, Liu, & Mao, 2019). The multi-hop clustering algorithm (PMC) guarantees stability and coverage of cluster, which has the capability of supporting the vehicle’s rapid mobility.
Safety applications in VANET really on broadcast schemes for information exchange on the vehicle status. The safety applications goal is to reduce accidents and deaths. Some of the safety applications included in the vehicles are safety driving and warning applications, applications for information sharing between vehicles and the internet, and up to the automated driving application. The operation of safety applications depends on the message dissemination scheme, which sends the message to the root or the rendezvous point (RP) node, which forwards the message to all receivers or cluster groups. Message dissemination is important in supporting safety applications as it enables the delivery of critical information within a specific period of time that is within a timely measure to address the safety issue (Shah, Malik, Rahman, Iqbal, and Khan, 2019). The successful delivery of messages in time to all intended receivers is known as reliability. Reliability also involves the emergency messages or accident information arriving at the rest of the network within the time for vehicles and other agency responders before its lifetime expiry (Sattar, Qureshi, Saleem, & Mumtaz, 2018).
The major terms of concepts used in the study include the intelligent transportation system (ITS), which is an advanced application that is designed to provide innovative services and road management solutions for transportation safety vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) is another term, which means a type a type of mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) that is a self-organizing network of vehicle devices that is capable of establishing communication without relying on fixed infrastructure and free to move independently. Clustering is an algorithm that creates connectivity in VANETs in ITS to achieve communication between the nodes and the vehicles. The term broadcast used in the study means the process of communication between broadband cloud structures using the mobile network. 5G in means the fifth generation network that has the capability of supporting a large amount of data traffic and the massive number of wireless connectivity through its speed of up to 1,000 megabits per second. While, LTE is a 4G wireless communications standard capable of providing data, multimedia streaming, and IP-based voice at speed up to 1 gigabit per second and 100 megabits per second.
The intelligent transportation system relies on different technologies that are incorporated into its major components. The technologies that would be used for VANET include V2V communication technologies that incorporate Wi-Fi, which contains high data transfer rate, DSRC with has high data transfer rate, and infrared, which is reliable and easy to master (Chen, 2017). The technologies that would be used for 5G / LTE Advanced include the Multi-hop Moving Zone (MMZ) clustering scheme and the Data Packet Delivery Ratio (DPDR) for providing a stable cluster essential for attaining high packet delivery and maintaining low latency. Merging cluster is also used in LTE or 5G communication to mitigate the broadcast storm problem and improve communication layers. The technologies for the eNodeB include the remote radio unit (RRU) and the baseband unit (BBU).
Message dissemination is the process of sending a message to the root or RP node of a tree, where the message is forwarded to receivers. The time involved in message dissemination affects the reliability of the message. Message dissemination is essential in supporting safety applications as it enables the delivery of critical information within a specific period. When the nodes sends the message to the cluster head upon receiving the message, the cluster head forwards the message to the intended receivers. The cluster members depend on the speed of the cluster head in processing the message and distributing it in time.
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