The research involves the investigation of the experimental challenges on geology. The paper involves the investigation of the existence of space balls as circular bodies on the planetary bodies. The introduction part entails the description of mapping techniques and their importance in the research. The paper also involves the historical background that describes the basic idea behind planetary bodies and the exploration activities. The current research section summarizes the methodologies used in the experiment and the results.
The scientific study of the planets, satellites, and other bodies such as the space balls relies on technologies such as remote sensing using the appropriate wavelength in the electromagnetic spectrum (Campbell, 1). The data is gathered and used in the production of maps. The production and the distribution of geological maps on the Earth, Mars, or other bodies provide an effective way of investigating the existence of materials and structures such as the space balls (Tanaka, 511). The maps have significant importance in understanding both the local and regional scales that shaped the landscape and the formation of the materials. The maps have significant use, but they might sometimes be attributed to several errors. The errors may reduce the relevance of the maps in terms of the accuracy and precision of the concept that is being investigated. The maps for investigating the effect of circular objects such as the space balls should be accurate and of high quality. The terrestrial data has not been used in the testing of the validity of the planetary geological maps as well as their accuracies. Therefore, the understanding of the photographic techniques and limitations can be of importance in investigating the geological mapping of objects such as space balls. The mapping or investigations can be implemented by the use of the techniques which might be improved by depending on how they are utilized.
The understanding of the space balls is connected to the planetary origins (Vita-Finzi & Fortes, 1). The origin is determined by the composition, the internal dynamics, including the evolution of the planets. The development of the solar system and the comparison with the circling other stars formthe milestone of the origin of planetary. The difficulties are also brought into focus by other types of ranges of scales both in space and time phenomenon. The architecture of the solar system describes the different range of objects in terms of sizes and separated by objects such as the cloud of cold gas. The different theories have described the solar system (Vita-Finzi & Fortes, 5). The understanding provides the viewpoint of the planetary geologists. The theories describe the solar system model, which describes the existence of planets, including their terrestrial components such as rocky and icy outer groups. The first group of theories described how the centrifugal force caused the nebula to form a disk, and the planets were built from dust particles, and the disk underwent contraction to form the sun. The other group of theories describes the origin of planetary bodies by basing on the concept of catastrophic hinge due to tidal contraction between the sun and another star. The explanation has been supported by Herold Jeffreys, who was one of the geophysicists (Vita-Finzi & Fortes, 6).
On the other hand, the issue of planetary exploration has been there as indicated by NASA missions (Rummel, 1). The planetary surface exploration involved several tasks that involve a wide range of capabilities and strategies. The main bodies that were targeted were the moon and the earth. Future exploration also involves the use of the lessons drawn from past explorations. Some of the challenges involved the hazardous environment on the earth, which forms the future of the exploration systems.
On the other hand, mapping of the planetary bodies has been happening, especially on Mars. The mapping process was aimed at investigating the geological, tectonic, and hydrologic, among other factors in the global or regional scale. The photo geologic mapping of Mars began when 10% of the image was obtained through the Mariner 6 and 7 spacecraft (Tanaka, 511). The maps were then drawn by the use of an appropriate scale. The geological maps were produced by the use of data such as Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), among others. The early methods of mapping were also based on the observations on space images (Ilyin, et al, 21)
The methods that can be used in the investigation of the circular bodies in planetary geology include the use of the hypothesis (Baker, 7). The testing of the hypothesis is derived from the use of analogy. The experts in the field of geology have been using the analogy inspired hypothesis and then comparison against the real world. The field of geology does not rely on controlled experimentation as compared to other classical sciences. Therefore, the use of geological means engages the alternative methods of testing or corroborating the various hypotheses that are generated by the analogy. The process involves adopting the hypothesis and then followed by exploring the consequences, which entail the comparison with other alternatives (Baker, 8). The comparison does not rely on the logic of the correspondence but rather on the logic of consistency, consilience, or coherence. Consistency of the geological hypothesis entails the lack of contradictions such that the hypothesis cannot contradict with the other known principles. The hypothesis is such that the newly recognized phenomenon is related to the phenomenon under the investigation. The phenomenon is adequately explained by the hypothesis.
The use of a mapping approach is another method for investigating the phenomenon of space balls. The mapping process is integrated to access the accuracy of the geological maps by using the information derived from remote sensing (Tanaka et al, 515). The prove of the relevance of the process and how to optimize the techniques in the planetary bodies. The methodology involves the integration of other technologies for analysis, recording, and presenting the map data. The steps involved the production of the photo geologic map of the test site and compilation in the appropriate units. The maps are then compared with the geological history and the description of the certainty and rationale, among other factors. The other additional data, such as the elevation contouring, the DEM shading, is also provided (Tanaka et al, 515). The other components involve the use of software for the analysis. The second approach is the inclusion of the maps that contain the age of the site. The geological units are defined by basing on the age information for the extraction of the stratigraphic framework for the region (Tanaka et al, 515). The last procedure is the determination of the accuracy and precision of the process and the interpretation of the results. The accuracy and precision are determined in accordance with the expected accuracies.
Figure 1: Demonstration of mapping of objects and comparison for accuracies (Tanaka, 516)
Figure 2: Satellite imageries for existence of geological bodies (Tanaka, 516)
The other method is by use of earth-based radar mapping (Campbell, 2). The methods extract information from planetary objects such as the moon or planets. The measurements involve the determination of the variation in the Doppler shift between the transmitter and any other selected point on the planet surface. The techniques are then used in adjusting the inter-pulse timing or phase so that the target point appears at the known delay and frequency shift. The signals are then collected by the receiver and undergo filtration for the removal of noise (Zimbelman, 179). The radar observations are used in determining the round-trip delay that occurs between the transmitter and the receiver
Figure 3 the Image representing a delay in the Doppler Shift (Campbell, 3)
In conclusion, the research outlines the understanding and investigation of circular objects such as the space balls on the surface planetary bodies. The research recognizes the importance of involving the previous methods and relating to the current methods. The understanding of the characteristics of the objects entails drawing deeper information such as the age and the use of technologies and software. The technologies involved observation techniques, such as the use of remote sensing techniques. The methods are effective because they are more accurate and precise as compared to the methods such as hypothesis.
The introduction part of the research entails the outline of the methods used in geological mapping of the circular objects such as the space balls on the planetary bodies. The mapping process is critical for the project because it helps in displaying the contents and representing the phenomenon. There are several mapping techniques that have been used in the past and proven effective. The historical background of the research describes the theories and early methods that were used in locating the objects. It also describes the important details on initial explorations that were important in investigating the existence of bodies on the planetary bodies. The current research section involves a summary of all methods that are utilized in investigating the phenomenon. The methods used in the investigation involve the use of a hypothesis. Mapping approaches the Radar mapping approach. The methods have aided in proving the existence of space balls on planetary bodies.
Tanaka, Kenneth L., et al. “Assessment of planetary geologic mapping techniques for Mars using terrestrial analogs: The SP Mountain area of the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona.” Planetary and Space Science 57.5-6 (2009): 510-532.
Campbell, Bruce A. “Planetary geology with imaging radar: insights from earth-based lunar studies, 2001–2015.” Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 128.964 (2016): 062001.
Baker, Victor R. “Terrestrial analogs, planetary geology, and the nature of geological reasoning.” Planetary and Space Science 95 (2014): 5-10.
Rummel, John D. “Planetary Surface Exploration: Recent Results and Analog Environments.” SAE Transactions (1993): 1460-1463.
Vita-Finzi, Claudio, and Dominic Fortes. Planetary Geology: an Introduction. Dunedin Academic Press, 2014.
Ilyin, A. V., et al. “The application of space imagery to geology and mineral exploration in the USSR—A case history.” Advances in Space Research 3.2 (1983): 19-26.
Zimbelman, James R. “Image resolution and evaluation of genetic hypotheses for planetary landscapes.” Geomorphology 37.3-4 (2001): 179-199.