Police and race relations (police brutality)
Police and race relations (police brutality)
Death Penalty (Pro’s v. Cons)
Terrorism domestic and Foreign,
School Shootings or other high profile mass shootings,
Serial Killers, Juvenile Delinquency, Private vs Public Prisons,
Plea Bargaining, Bail Reform,
White and or Green Collar Crime,
Sexual Assaults on College Campuses
Social Structure Theories
This list is meant to give you ideas, you may choose any other topic within the realm of crime and delinquency. Make sure you use at least 3 additional sources aside from your textbook. Please do not re-tread a paper you did for another class, If I suspect so, I will ask around to the other professors. Absolutely no plagiarism. 8-10 pages double spaced, Times New Roman Font size 12. APA Format with in-text citations is a must. Add a bibliography page at the end. Cover Page is not necessary, but; one may be included if you like. A cover page and bibliography page does not count towards the 8 minimum pages of content.
War on Drugs Policies and Implications
Marijuana Legalization (Pro’s vs. Cons)
A Comparison of any and all Crime Theories with a conclusion of what you find to be best based on your research
The militarization of the Police in the US
Police officers are known to use excessive force when handling criminals hence raising a national concern. Police brutality involves the use of physical and sometimes severe cruelty. It is mostly connected to racial profiling where citizens of a different race, religion, socioeconomic status or politics are considered to deserve a higher punishment from the police. Over the past several years, social scientists have been showing attention to some forms of police behavior. They came up with theories that explain police behavior such as sociological theory which is based on the notion that the social dynamics of police-citizen encounters influence police behavior.
Police and race relations (police brutality)
On February 4, 1999, an African American twenty-year-old immigrant from guinea was just walking in the streets unarmed. A member of the New York police department’s street crime unit shot him forty-one times using nineteen bullets and left him dead. This left the people of color with a lot of outrage and disgust towards the police department. The magnitude of the gun power used to attack the young man indicated police brutality. So many cases police brutality, unjustified shootings, false arrests, murder, verbal abuse, and physical harassment have been reported since then up to now which have not been a surprise to the African American community but rather alarming.
Police brutality is common in the Black, Latino and other minority communities in America (Worden, 2015). The police involved in such cases go unpunished and the case is easily forgotten. Police brutality towards people of color is a clear indication of white supremacy and privilege. Where we are victims of brutal, abusive and racist behavior from the police, we ought to live in fear, paranoia, rage, alienation, indifference, and violence. This behavior rends to democracy fabric for the immediate victims of police brutality, their families, and all the cities, towns, neighborhoods and the nation at large. Police brutality today poses a question of being in the era of slavery until today.
Community policing the collaboration between the community and the police. This collaboration helps in identifying and solving community problems. All community members become active allies in ensuring there is safety and quality of neighborhoods (Somerville, 2016). When there are concerns, the community members raise them, contribute and give advice unanimously then take action addressing these concerns. The police department helps the community members to mobilize resources and support to enhance their quality of life and solve their problems. This kind of partnership requires creativity, patience, understanding, and energy from everyone involved.
Community policing involves a variety of practical and philosophical approaches. The strategies of community policing defer depending on the community’s needs and responses. There is a community policing consortium which contains the framework for community policing. It assists agencies in implementing the policies of the community. The process of constructing the framework allows community members, police and policymakers to assess the effectiveness of various procedures of implementation as well as the community policing impacts on local crime levels, fear, violence, and other safety problems that involve the public.
Death Penalty (Pro’s v. Cons)
Being put to death by the state as a form of punishment for a crime is known as the death penalty or capital punishment. It is a government sanction practice that is still retained in fifty-eight countries including the USA (Hood, & Hoyle, 2015). The death penalty emerged from the Bible in the Mosaic law. Religion shapes society and vice versa. The death penalty also incapacitates offenders effectively and lastly; it is usually the only feasible alternative in most cases. Some people may argue biblically that the death penalty was abolished by Jesus when he died on the cross and so it must be abolished in the judicial systems.
A death penalty makes a miscarriage of justice irrevocable while the innocent is not convicted, hence, human judgment is not infallible. A life imprisonment is simply enough protection of society. Forty-six countries had abolished the death penalty by 1986. Most of the countries abolished the death penalty on the basis of understanding human rights more broadly. The UN’s high commission for human rights approves the resolution of abolition of the death penalty. It stated that the abolition of the death penalty enhances human dignity and the progressive enhancement of human dignity. A restriction for offenses which the death penalty could be imposed was a subsequent resolution.
(Pros)The main reasons why the death penalty is accepted in the community is because it is required by justice, it vindicates moral order hence is used as a symbol of public authority, it is a cheaper method of punishment compared to imprisonment, it is a more effective form of deterrent and therefore, more crimes are prevented. (Cons) Some of the reasons that support abolition include the evidence that proves the death penalty does not act as a deterrent to capital crimes. The abolition of the death penalty makes convictions easier, with fewer delays and a low cost. Those with mental disturbances are mostly the ones who commit serious crimes. Some of the imitative crimes that include murder are stimulated by executions.
People adjust differently to prison life. There are different adaptation patterns and the implications they make in an inmate’s life quality. The inmates’ adaptations are influenced by the prison environment (deprivation theory) and their pre-prison characteristics (importation theory) (White, Haines & Asquith, 2017). The theory of importation implies that the behavior of the inmates is geared by their experiences, beliefs and pre-institutional characteristics while the theory of deprivation implies that the illicit or prosocial behavior of the inmates is a reflection of how the inmate is coping with the prison environment through personal choices or social activities.
Different inmates have a different degree of adaptations which can be observed at different times and situations. Spending more time in prison creates room for exposure of inmates to “inmates code”. In a correctional environment, adaptation levels dictate how inmates occupy their time. Inmates have schedules and routines to follow which are controlled by the justice system and administration. The justice system makes decisions about the inmate’s release dates and the administration makes and enforces daily routines and schedules.
The inmates’ behavior in a correctional facility such as assault, drugs/alcohol violations, and general rule violations is determined by their prior record, their association with antisocial peers, drug usage before their incarceration, mental health issues or inmates posing a greater security risk. Also, inmates who have served a longer period in jail could be a cause of misconduct. Different types of correctional environments have different sources of rule violations. Due to overpopulation in jails, correctional staff have a difficult time in managing these facilities.
Conviction of juveniles
Throughout the united states, thousands of juveniles are convicted among adults in adult correctional facilities. These juveniles are in the stages of growing emotionally, physically and psychologically. They are exposed to so much danger by the adult inmates and the correctional staff who have no skills in handling the juveniles (Kolivoski & Shook, 2016). The juveniles are also denied opportunities to access rehabilitative programs and educational services. Adults pose threats to juveniles such as physical and sexual assault. This causes a long term effect on them. They become targets within the first forty-eight hours of their imprisonment.
Juveniles convicted with adults in adult correctional facilities have recorded a higher number of suicides than the adults. While convicted there, they lack access to services that are critical to their continuous growth and development. They are most vulnerable to criminal socialization. In most cases, juveniles are arrested if found to have offensive or immoral conduct, willingly associating with offenders, visiting the drug stores such as liquor, visiting “trap houses”, engaging in businesses that are unlawful or illegal, roaming around the streets at night, driving without a license, running away from their homes without anyone’s consent and violation of the law of state among many others.
Parole and probation
There are four functions of parole and probation which are, presentencing investigations, diagnosing and assessing the needs of inmates, supervising clients and other intake procedures (Kaeble, Maruschak & Bonczar, 2015). The risk of community victimization by offenders who have been released has increased over recent years. The main cause has been parole and sometimes probation. Several states have already started eliminating parole opportunities. The correctional system faces several challenges. For example, the population that includes women and persons with disabilities and mental health conditions and the people in community supervision is increasing.
The facility is unable to deliver a good service due to the increase in population. Also, offering training, recruitments and retaining staff in the correctional system with adequate skills required is difficult. This can be addressed by technology which has shown great potential in making work easily and efficiently done. Some of the applications found on devices especially those meant to give aid to the correctional system will help officers to supervise inmates in probation or parole better. It will also allow those inmates under supervision to get better access to programs and services. Some of these applications are such as telemedicine which would improve the inmates’ access to medication.
War on drugs
Reports of the Global Commission On Drug Policy state that the detection risk, the legal status and prevention messages from the government have failed to encourage the use of drugs. Mostly Peer influence, fashion influence and economic and social influences have largely affected the use of drugs. The growth of incarcerated offenders has rapidly increased over time. The failure of deterring these drug offenders has led to financial straining on the corrections system. Incarcerating non-violent drug offenders has proven to be expensive and impacts negative consequences on the offenders.
More people get arrested for offenses related to drugs every year including adolescents. The criminal justice system’s main focus is on drug crimes more than any other type of crime. Most of the taxpayer’s money is used up in prosecuting and jailing drug-related offenders (Johnson & Hoopes, 2019). Implementing a policy is not usually expensive and neither is it free. Legislations enforced should not be evaluated by the cost or the sincerity in which they are implemented but how successful they are. The legislation on drug war implemented by president Nixon was based on the aim to improve society by reducing the harm caused by drugs.
Success on these drug policies should be measured by positive changes seen on the welfare of people as well as improvement of their health conditions and not by the number of arrests made and seizures nor the harshness offenders receive during punishments. The survey shows that the war on drugs has not been successful. The main tool used in fighting drugs is dependence on incarceration. Incarceration is used as a means to reduce recidivism, as rehabilitation and also acts as a deterrent. This tool is proven to be ineffective. It has failed to reduce recidivism, it does not offer meaningful rehabilitation and doesn’t deter future offenders.
When providing a unit of imprisonment to the offender, their social and financial stability is compromised so the families of the offenders are also affected. When a member of a family is incarcerated, more so a parent, children tend to repeat the same mistake and end up being incarcerated as well. Offenders face health issues such as AIDS while in prison. The effects of this disease and many others which are communicable are then translated in the homes and society in which the prisoner returns to once he/she is released. The US domestic and foreign drug policies on the war on drugs have very similar characteristics.
Incarceration is done everywhere to awaken the global war on drugs. The US Drug Enforcement Administration is consistent with cooperation and coordination with the local, state, federal and foreign governments in reducing the availability of illicit drugs in the US market. This is done through methods that don’t require enforcement such as crop substitution, crop eradication and offering training to foreign officials. The US foreign policy strategy is dominated by military defense. Both the US domestic and foreign drug policies use the military to search and seize the drug traffickers. The US has used the term “narcoterrorism” to justify the involvement of the military.
Mass shootings, gun violence
There have been a series of mass shootings witnessed in the United States over recent decades. They receive more attention from the public than cases of homicide. There is a need for policymakers to legislate new laws in the wake of mass shootings. Mass shootings also bring awareness to the issue of gun violence (Luca, Malhotra & Poliquin, 2019). The laws and policies would perfectly fall under gun violence. Some of the events that have led to vehement responses from groups that oppose changes that loosen the gun laws are the Columbine High School shootings in Colorado. The state government is the primary regulator of firearms. There are restrictions put by the federal government on firearm commerce.
These restrictions include the possession of guns by potentially dangerous individuals and ownership of certain types of firearms and ammunition. The policies decided by the state government include who owns a gun, the type of gun, the storage of the gun and the type of training to be undertaken by the gun holder. There are roles political parties play in the gun laws enacted. The two major political parties have different opinions on how gun policy should be restricted. The republican party favors fewer gun restrictions. The republican-controlled legislature on mass shootings loosen gun restrictions more than the democrat-controlled legislature.
Generally, police brutality is based on race, commonly in the Black, Latino and other minority communities in America. Community policing the collaboration between the community and the police. Most of the countries abolished the death penalty on the basis of understanding human rights more broadly. Very few countries still retain it. Convicted juveniles are exposed to danger by the adult inmates and the correctional staff who have no skills in handling the juveniles. The criminal justice system’s main focus is on drug crimes more than any other type of crime. The main cause of community victimization by offenders has been parole and sometimes probation. Mass shootings go in hand with gun violence.
Worden, R. E. (2015). The ’causes’ of police brutality: theory and evidence on police use of force. ER Maguire, & DE Duffee, Criminal Justice Theory: Explaining The Nature and Behavior of Criminal Justice, 2, 149-204.
Somerville, P. (2016). Understanding community: Politics, policy, and practice. policy press.
Hood, R., & Hoyle, C. (2015). The death penalty: A worldwide perspective. OUP Oxford.
White, R., Haines, F., & Asquith, N. L. (2017). Crime & criminology.
Kolivoski, K. M., & Shook, J. J. (2016). Incarcerating juveniles in adult prisons: Examining the relationship between age and prison behavior is transferred juveniles. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 43(9), 1242-1259.
Kaeble, D., Maruschak, L. M., & Bonczar, T. P. (2015). Probation and parole in the United States, 2014. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), US Department of Justice, and Office of Justice Programs.
Johnson, C., & Hoopes, J. (2019). The War on Drugs and the Case for Rehabilitation. Brigham Young University Prelaw Review, 33(1), 17.
Luca, M., Malhotra, D., & Poliquin, C. (2019). The impact of mass shootings on gun policy (No. w26187). National Bureau of Economic Research.