Methods and Tools for applying Internet of things (IoT) in Public Sectors
Outline of the paper:
3- Literature review
a. Definition of Internet of things
b. Examples of using internet of things in Public sectors
i. Methods and Tools in different countries, Such as Arab Countries, America, Europe …etc
c. Advantages and disadvantages of applying IoT in Public Sectors
4- Main and sub-main Requirements of applying IoT in Public Sectors (please write list of main requirements and sub-requirements for each points).
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Methods and Tools for applying Internet of things (IoT) in Public Sectors
Methods and Tools for applying Internet of things (IoT) in Public Sectors
The physical world digitization has led considerable attention due to the vast development that has been accomplished with innovations still ongoing in both technology and connectivity of everything on the internet. Technology and connectivity have enabled the interconnection of different technologies and software, enabling to engage in communication without the direct involvement of human within the internet infrastructure. The link of connectivity is based on a phenomenon known as the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT concept has seen spread since its introduction in 2009, becoming an essential factor in real-life application. This paper focuses on methods and tools for applying the Internet of Things (IoT) in public sectors, intending to understand the ability of the IoT in improving the various survives in the public sector and the limitations of applying IoT. The literature review covers examine different definitions of IoT concerning its application in the public sector. It also provides examples of the application of IoT in the public sector in various countries across the globe. The advantages and disadvantages of IoT in a different context in the public sector are examined.
The physical world digitization has led considerable attention due to the vast development that has been accomplished with innovations still ongoing in both technology and connectivity of everything on the internet. Technology and connectivity have enabled the interconnection of different technologies and software, enabling to engage in communication without the direct involvement of human within the internet infrastructure. The link of connectivity is based on a phenomenon known as the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT concept has seen spread since its introduction in 2009, becoming an essential factor in real-life application. The idea guiding the operation of the IoT phenomenon is to establish an independent, self-governing connection that is capable of securing and at the same time allowing data exchange among real-world physical internet-connected devices and real applications. (Chopra et al., 2019) Therefore, the Internet of Things creates a link between the virtual world and real-life physical applications and activities.
This paper focuses on methods and tools for applying the Internet of Things (IoT) in public sectors, intending to understand the ability of the IoT in improving the various survives in the public sector and the limitations of applying IoT. The public sector covers various contexts, with the focus of paper mainly being on national governments and public enterprise, including the health sector, electric power, waste management, and industrial.
Definition of Internet of things
The phenomenon of the Internet of Things has continued to gain more definitions as it evolves to support fundamental aspects of society. The definitions of the Internet of Things vary based on the application or the context of the technology, but all involve connectivity over the internet or network. Chopra et al. (2019) define the Internet of Things as the internet of the future that will allow communication among anyone and at any place and enable machine-to-machine (M2M) learning. Suraki & Jahanshahi define the Internet of Things based on two concepts: “Internet” and “Thing,” where “Internet” refers to “The worldwide network of interconnected computer networks, based on a standard communication protocol, while “Thing” refers to “an object not precisely identifiable.” The Internet of Things is also defined as a self-configured global network infrastructure containing standards and interpretable communication protocols that have enabled virtual and physical things to identify physical attributes and virtual personalities and are seamlessly integrated into the information structure. Hu et al. (2013) define the Internet of Things as a connection of al items to the internet through radio frequency identification (RFID) and other information by sensing types of equipment to achieve intelligent identification and management.
Examples of Using the Internet of Things in Public Sectors
The application of the Internet of Things in the public sector has many examples due to the capability provided by IoT. One of the major applications of IoT in the public sector has been in the health sector. The health sector has utilized IoT in the implementation of various technologies towards improving health care delivery to patients. Some examples around the world of the application of the Internet of Things in the health care sector include the fuzzy-based fog computing for real-time data transmission in health Internet-of-Things applied in Saudi Arabia. The fuzzy-based fog computing is applied in solving the problem associated with the high traffic generated in the health care resulting in network bottleneck and burdening the cloud with an extra amount of data (Shukla et al., 2018). The high data generation and the internet connectivity factors have a significant impact on the latency, including high network latency, large data transmission, and high service latency, which interfere with the ability of the cloud to provide a real-time mode in processing and sending patients’ data. However, fuzzy-based fog computing allows the integration of the healthcare IoT devices with the cloud and uses fog services with the Fuzzy Data Packet Allocation (FDPA) algorithm that transfers the data of the patient in real-time mode to agencies and doctors.
Another example of using IoT in the health sector is its application in monitoring patients. Systems of monitoring patients that are based on IoT have to continue t be introduced in the health care system globally (Jayswal et al., 2017). The ability to observe the patient 24 hours can only be attained by the system that has been configured based on IoT. an example of an IoT based system for the monitor of patients is the health monitoring system that uses non-intrusive biomedical sensors that is capable of measuring various parameters including the heartbeat, ECG, temperature, blood pressure, and respiration (Patil et al., 2018). The system utilizes Arduino Mega Controller to which non-invasive biomedical sensors are connected. The output is displayed on any digital monitoring system using Arduino Mega. The data obtained from the sensors is uploaded to the ThingSpeak cloud to store and to access patient’s information by their doctors or by the concerned for necessary follow-ups in real-time.
`Myers et al. (2016) proposed a structural health monitoring system (SHM) that is integrated with the Internet of Things enabling it to avoid operational issues by gaining rapid response capabilities, off-loading computational power, data storage, and high remote monitoring capabilities. In Thailand, IoT has been integrated with the health level 7 protocol for real-time healthcare monitoring by using cloud computing. The framework is currently being utilized in helping the elderly in checking and monitoring their health care themselves anywhere anytime by the use of the medical device in the Internet of Things. The data provided on the system is in real-time based on the data stored on cloud computing with JSON language (Plathong & Surakratanasakul, 2017). The real-time information on cloud computing regarding the patient or the elderly is directly linked to the public health and hospitals, enabling them to use the information being obtained by the monitoring system for the patient treatment or for providing advice to the elderly or patient through web services with XML language according to Health Level 7 standard. Ranjana & Alexander (2018) utilize the same concept in providing how IoT is a medical reminder for older people through continuous monitoring.
The application Internet of Things has been utilized in the security context of the public sector. In the United States, IoT has been allied in mitigating public mass shootings. The rise of a mass shooting in the United States had to be contained through a civilian response that could enable more lives to save during such instances. The current strategy advocated by the Homeland Security Department for a civilian in mitigating shootings is to run, hide, and fight, which in most scenarios may not be effective in saving as many lives as possible. Civilians in an active shooting situation aim at avoiding being targets as best as they can. To enable civilian in mass shooting situations to avoid being targets, a decentralized, intelligent Internet of Things-based decision making support system that utilizes building sensors in directing occupants during public building shooting have been deployed in most buildings in the United States (Gao, 2016). The system utilizes the IoT based connectivity within the shooting environment to dramatically increase public safety by detecting and monitoring the situation while smartly conducting civilian evacuation. The system is also utilized during other kinds of emergency, whereby it alerts users about the safest doors and assist in their evacuation. The system is dynamic, prevents congestion during the evacuation, avoids the attacker or the source of the emergence, and minimizes evacuee panic.
In China, IoT is has been utilized in industrialized and intensive aquaculture through monitoring systems based on the Internet of Things that monitor water quality. The quality of water is considered essential in agriculture development in China. With the introduction of a water monitoring quality system based on IoT, it has made it easier for the modernization of aquaculture (Sun & Chen, 2019).
Advantages and Disadvantages of Applying IoT in Public Sectors
The application of the Internet of Things is a different context in the public sector is associated with the advantages that IoT has. However, there are various disadvantages that have been identified associated with the application of IoT in public sectors. This section reviews both the advantages and disadvantages of applying IoT in the public sector.
IoT provides various advantages in the public sectors with regard to a variety of aspects of human life, where the beneficiaries are enterprises and governments. The first advantage of IoT in the public sector is assisting in transportation and traffic control through the connectivity between vehicles that allow smart communication providing real-time and predictive data about the safety of the vehicle, its occupants, and the surrounding environment. With IoT, traffic control becomes easy due to data sharing through control applications for transport systems that allow traffic data sharing reducing the waiting times. Another advantage of IoT is its ability to integrate with various processes, including in manufacturing, where it is utilized in automation and controlling processes (Al-Shargabi & Sabri, 2017). In manufacturing, IoT reduces the rate of errors or accidents by providing data and enhancing the machine’s functioning to high efficiency and accuracy. The engineers required to work in remote areas benefit from IoT applications of the augmented reality and remote monitoring.
Another advantage of IoT is that it enhances the human home experience, which improves human happiness that has a direct impact on the functioning of the public sector. Smart homes are considered one of the application areas of IoT that has improved the overall life of human beings. Smart homes are controlled by IoT devices to support occupants’ ability to communicate and control their homes in terms of the required conditions such as temperature and lighting. The IoT application in smart homes has also enabled individuals to control the consumption of power through a remote control that enables the scheduling of electronic devices usage and their consumption of power.
The other advantage of IoT is that it offers public safety, which is essential in the function of various contexts in the public sector (Ma, 2014). For instance, the installation of IoT sensors in public transport services or on poles for detecting accidents and other threats such as crimes and disaster would increase public-based services’ safety. IoT has also enabled the monitoring and controlling of the health care processes of patients. The data analysis conducted by IoT is utilized by physicians and nurses in decision-making regarding the patient’s health care. The monitoring and controlling of patients’ health through IoT-based devices has seen the lives of many people being saved (Suraki & Jahanshahi, 2020). IoT also provides instant notification to emergency physicians and services such as ambulance in the process, they detect the necessity of such, based on the patient’s condition.
IoT in the public sector is associated with various disadvantages. Some of them include security, which involves the possibility of exploiting IoT connected devices. IoT devices depend on the internet or network connections in their functioning. The connectivity of the devices to the intern or network requires a high provision of security. However, the development of technology has seen attackers develop more sophisticated attack tools that now pose a huge threat to the security of IoT connected devices. IoT devices that do not incorporate sufficient security also create an opportunity for attackers to use it as an entry point cyber-attack to other connected devices within the IoT connection. The challenge is how the security of IoT connected devices can be assured.
Another disadvantage of IoT in the public sector is related to privacy. The application of IoT in the different contexts of IoT involves the connection of data about the environment they are designated. The information connected by IoT devices in the public sectors includes personal information and sensitive data that require privacy consideration policies. The application of privacy policies has become a challenging factor in IoT since the privacy expectation of individuals being observed by the IoT-connected devices varies regarding the scope and the use of data being obtained (AlEnezi et al., 2020). The other disadvantage of IoT is related to interoperability. Interoperability involves the connection of the IoT devices and sensors towards information sharing. The disadvantages of IoT that are associated with interoperability arise due to the various degrees of communication and protocols among IoT devices and systems, making the connection and exchange of information between devices slow or difficult.
Technology and connectivity have enabled the interconnection of different technologies and software, enabling to engage in communication without the direct involvement of human within the internet infrastructure. The link created by IoT has seen the advancement in the public sector. The examples provided concerning the application of IoT in public sector indicate how IoT has increased the operational ability of human in different context of the public sector. Despite the disadvantages that face the use of IoT based devices, Internet of Things is set to need more innovations in the public sector in future.
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