You are a Policy Analysis in the Ministry of Economic Growth and Job Creation in your country
and your Permanent Secretary has agreed you to prepare a Policy Brief for the Minister who will
make a presentation to his colleagues Minister at the next Caricom Council meeting.
The meeting will discuss the factors impacting policy formulation and implementation in the region
including the actors that play a significant role in the policy formulation and implementation
process. You are required to use international best practices in your analysis.
Factors’ Affecting Formulation and Implementation of Policies
Policy implementation entails translating goals to action and projects. The creation of jobs is primarily an essential aspect, yet still an uphill task because of today’s economic influence and policy implementation are not aiding the process. According to an evaluation by the National Employment Policies, 73 counties have posted requests for technical assistance seeking guidance in the formulation of their employment policies, the US being among them (DeLeo, 2018). However, most of these policies can be well formulated and designed yet remain unimplemented. To curb this, designs need to be complemented by mechanisms to adapt to the constantly changing economic status by enacting Employment policies. The International Labor Office (ILO), makes imperative strides in developing the National Employment Policies (NEP), however, they are not without a share of challenges that hinder the implementation of these policies (Louis,2019).
For policy formulation and implementation, numerous players play a significant role, for instance, the legislators, administrators, judiciary, and notably the judiciary. The input of these players ensures that the process of policy formulations is inclusive. The method of formulation, implementation, and evaluation entails problem-solving through the collective instrument tool, being the policy. Policies are universal, and every nation has crucial team players in its formulation (Birkland, 2019). For instance, in the economy and job creation sector, the International Labor Organization cuts across the spectrum to define policies that influence the process of economic growth and job creation in different nations based on the distribution of resources.
These players contribute immensely to policy formulation and implementation; for instance, firstly, the executive, comprising of the president, prime ministers, ministers, and other political aides, plays an imperative role in implementing the polices. In Nigeria, for essence, the president is actively involved in the formulation, implementation, and evaluations of the crucial public policies. In the case of America, the ministers, like us, actively oversee the implementation of these policies to facilitate economic growth. Secondly, the legislators, for instance, the state representatives, they are the primary policymakers who understand the root cause of the problems and initiate and formulate the policies. They use elective positions to represent the interests of the people (Bandola-Gill, 2017).
Thirdly, the judiciary this comprises of the judges’ ad courts; their responsibilities involve interpretation of the laws that contribute to the policymaking process. This entails the judicial review of the policy by defining the roles of the executive and legislators in the policy formulation per the provision of the constitutions and prevents any violations; they are also actively involved in the formation of economic policies and judicial activism. The judiciary has the power to modify and redirect policies by ensuring fairness prevails during the policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation process. Lastly, the administrators’ role is to act as supplementary policymakers to the legislators’ judiciary and executive (Bandola-Gill, 2017).
Factors affecting policy
According to the International Labor Office (ILO), public policies are meant to help citizens in solving multifaceted issues, unemployment being one of them. The policies are formulated based on the available statistics detailing the rate of unemployment in the country. However, in America, despite the development, most public policies are formulated with inadequate data to provide efficient guidance to the policymakers (Louis, 2019). This is evidenced by the high number of unemployed persons, despite the many polices created to aid in job creation. This, therefore, makes it difficult for them to tackle unemployment. For states such Nevada at (28.2%) unemployment rate according to the statistics from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (Santoleri, 2020). The government is doing the best to curb the insurgency of crimes resulting from the inadequacy of jobs.
Misconception and misapplication of policy
Policy implementation facilitates the actualization of policy objectives into reality by ensuring that the policies formulated are put to use. The citizens can enjoy the implemented policies. Unfortunately, most policies suffer misconceptions and misapplications by individuals who are not negatively affected by the issues at hand. Most bureaucrats do not feel the impacts of unemployment as profoundly as is felt by that struggling unemployed citizen striving to improve their living standards. (Birkland, 2019) Such policies may not be timely implemented to benefit the people since those in positions are not directly impacted. The actors may have conflicting interest in the nature and pace of implementation of the formulated policies. Additionally, ethical dilemmas and misconducts regularly arise amidst policy formulations by the responsible players.
Irregular evaluation of existing policies
Thirdly, irregular evaluations of existing policies, a lot of preexisting employment policies are rarely evaluated to ascertain their strengths and weaknesses. Most existing policies are either abandoned to redundancy or similar ones formulated, leading to policy duplication, consequentially getting abandoned over time.
Herein are a few recommendations to that should be adopted in order to combat policy formulation and implementation challenges
First, there should be regular evaluation and revision of existing policies. The evaluation identifies the strengths and weakness portrayed by the policy. These will allow for omission or additions to be made to better the policy. Additionally, it will act as a guidance tool for future policy formulation and implementation. Secondly, there is an imminent need for movement involvement in strengthening the policymaking process by increasing the policy apparatus. Government involvement will rule out the possibility of misconception and misapplication of policy by policy makers’, the government will safeguard the interest of its citizens.
Public policy formulation and implementation are among the major issues affecting our United States in its effort to actualize goals in national development. Most policies do not live to surpass the implementation stage. These results from limited attention and follow up by the respective policy makers. A lot of resources and time are invested in policy formulation, such as the design and preparation of plans with little effort in actualizing the policies.
The ministry is prioritizing employment and job creation by putting up a few polices Firstly, infrastructural investment; it is an imperative aspect in influencing job creation and an economic growth boost. The enactment of infrastructural projects will lead to direct, indirect, and induced job opportunities, which will cause short and long-term economic growth. Secondly, inclusivity, an exemplary instance being, creation of job opportunities for people with disabilities. Including them in the employment plan enhances economic recovery since they will contribute actively to the economy while cutting of overdependence on both the government and their families (Cornick, 2016). Thirdly, limitation of job losses, a lot of policies have been formulated but yet to be implemented revolving about strategies to curb job losses. This is by ensuring SMEs are supported to weather financial crisis to avoid layoffs. This is possible through, work adjustments, employment subsidies, and wage adjustment as direct measures to protect jobs.
Moreover, the innovation of public employment programmers (Pep) is imperative. Employment implementation policy is essential, whereby it should be applied in both the local and national levels, with each state having one functional economic development agency to aid businesses during challenging situations. The ministry will provide incentives and training programs; this will ensure that the unemployed can obtain skills that will help in job acquisition. Formulation and implementation of the employment policy can only be possible through collective effort government agencies, our ministry of economic growth, and job creation in coordination with other departments and all other employment affiliated agencies (Santoleri, 2020). The coordination systems are intertwined with particular focus on our country on the local and national level, the ministerial coordination and departmental coordination.
Following the discussion, it is imperative to note that the efficiency of formational and implementations of policies in solving complex, multifaceted human issues such as unemployment will directly impact economic growth. Consequentially, policymakers are expected to formulate policies to achieve the twin goal of economic growth and job creation, leading to improved welfare of the people. Finally, we must adhere to policy formulation and implementation protocols while considering the recommendations above to improve public policy formation and implementation; thus, America will have a better policy formation and implementation procedure.
Bandola-Gill, J., & Lyall, C. (2017). Knowledge brokers and policy advice in policy formulation. In Handbook of policy formulation. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Birkland, T. A. (2019). An introduction to the policy process: Theories, concepts, and models of public policy making. Routledge.
Cornick, J., Fernández-Arias, E., & Stein, E. (2016). The Challenge of Public Capabilities for Successful Productive Development Policies: Hopeless Task or Pragmatic Program?
DeLeo, R. A. (2018). Indicators, agendas and streams: analysing the politics of preparedness. Policy & Politics, 46(1), 27-45
Louis, M. (2019). Who decides? Representation and decision-making at the international labour organization. In The ILO@ 100 (pp. 40-58). Brill Nijhoff.
Santoleri, P. (2020). Innovation and job creation in (high-growth) new firms. Industrial and Corporate Change, 29(3), 731-756.