Use this format for writing your discussion board assignments. I have added a funnel approach graphic down below. DBAs need to be structured to make it easier to grade and prepare you for writing papers.
DBA1-1 (use this subheading)
DBA1-2 (use this subheading)
DBA1-3 (use this subheading)
Find an online news story that discusses a leader who used his power for corruption such as engaging in unethical behavior. Then, you need to answer the questions shown below.
DBA1-1 Define with a direct quote and describe three of the six factors related to ethical leadership. Tell us which two factors could have been helpful to the corrupt leader in the news article you found so that he or she did not become corrupted. (** 200 or more words required)
DBA1-2 Briefly describe the corruption leader engaged in by citing news story. The Josephson Institute (2008) has identified six dimensions of character. You need to highlight the two characteristics you think the leader in your article violated. Bring in direct quotes from reading to define characteristic(s) and additional quotes to support your analysis. (** 200 or more words required)
DBA1-3 Discuss 12.2 Ethical Leadership Style Questionnaire and include a direct quote from chapter in your discussion.
Overtime, there has been a growing concern on the levels of “ethical consciousness’ among corporate and national entities. The leaders are expected to be a source of ethical guidance for their junior employees and ensure moral development in their firms. Nonetheless, scandals and moral lapses have left key stakeholders questioning the concept of leadership legitimacy as the latter’s trust towards the affected entities dwindles constantly. Several leaders have been brought to book for their corrupt dealings which led to their enterprises losing millions and billions of dollars. One of those leaders was Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali: who was the former president of Tunisia. In his 23-year rule in the country from 1987, Ben Ali is reported to have defrauded the country $1 billion to $2.6 billion in evading import tariffs (Gall, 2015). This is one example of the different ways he incorporated to engage in corruption. This paper seeks to look into ethical leadership from the context of the former Tunisian president in terms of the respective factors and traits not illustrated. Finally, the Ethical Leadership Style Questionnaire will be discussed.
Ethical leadership has been defined as “the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement and decision-making” (Mihelic, Lipicnik, & Tekavcic, 2010). One factor of ethical leadership is the decision-making process adopted which depends on the goals they intend to achieve (Seidman, 2015). An ethical leader desires to achieve long term goals for their entity. Therefore they maintain good relationships with juniors for effective communication between them. An individual’s morals and values are also a factor of ethical leadership. Whatever an individual considers as their standards of behavior and the rules they abide in, in their individual conduct will determine whether they act ethically or not. It is essential that a leader is put to test on different situations and trespective actions known so as to understand their moral stance on different issues. The third factor of ethical leadership is a demonstration of moral authority. Ethical leaders understand that the power they have is not over people but through people (Seidman, 2015). Therefore, they bring in people in their causes who have similar missions with shared values. These people who are its moral authority help the ethical leaders to achieve the real impact.
Ben Ali failed in his decision-making process and a proper moral authority that would guide him in his ways to becoming an ethical leader. The whole system was corrupt meaning all sectors were led by individuals whose goals were only individual (Gall, 2015). To this effect they made decisions that would make them achieve for themselves more without thinking of the Tunisian people. Ben Ali needed to bring in citizens who had the good of the common people at heart who would be his moral authority. They would create proper decision-making systems to evade any forms of corruption.
Ben Ali ensured that together with his family they controlled the regulatory system of licensing and investment thus maintaining a virtual monopoly of the main sectors (Gall, 2015). No competition could enter the market, and they would outperform everyone in terms of profits, growth employment opportunities among others. They used regulations to control foreign investment that whatever came into the country would benefit the family members. Ben Ali would allow the owned companies to report lower unit prices for imported products compared to the exports from the country. Competitor companies indicated a different trend that caused them to be confiscated and ownership changed. The discrepancies would never be reported again even if they happened (Gall, 2015). Underpricing ensured that the companies could evade taxes worth billions while other firms were paying accordingly.
The two characteristics that Ben Ali violated were trustworthiness and responsibility. According to Josephson Institute of Ethics (2008), “When others trust us, they give us greater leeway because they feel we don’t need monitoring to ensure that we’ll meet our obligations .., trustworthiness is the most complicated of the six core ethical values and concerns a variety of qualities like honesty, integrity, reliability and loyalty”. Ben Ali failed to live up to the expectations of the country’s people and engaged in self-serving behavior together with constant lying. He was not honest on the sector reportings, had no integrity, was unreliable and never loyal to the citizens thus untrustworthy.
According to Josephson Institute of Ethics (2008), “Ethical people show responsibility by being accountable, pursuing excellence and exercising self-restraint. They exhibit the ability to respond to expectations”. While becoming president, Ben Ali was taking responsibility for the country which entails making decisions which are accountable for and understands the consequences. Nonetheless, Ben Ali was only making decisions that benefited him without thinking of the negative implications it had on the country’s economy and people. He had no self-control on his individual desires thus could not restrain himself from acting unethically.
The Ethical Leadership Style Questionnaire is a self-assessment exercise which an individual takes to know where they stand ethically. According to Northouse (2017), “it will help you understand your own ethical leadership style and at the same time introduce you to the ethical ideas discussed”. The questionnaire contains several situations in which an individual is asked on their actions after which they will score to determine one’s leadership style. It is an important test that each leader and individual should take.
Ben Ali was an individual in a position that could make massive transformation in his country if he made the right choices. An ethical leader is able to achieve more for his country which will ultimately benefit him. To this effect, it is important that individuals work on their ethical beliefs constantly to ensure that they are acting morally upright.
Gall, C. (2015, June 25). Widespread Graft Benefited Tunisian Leader’s Family, Study Says. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/25/world/africa/widespread-graft-expanded-after-tunisan-revolt-study-says.html
Josephson Institute of Ethics (2002). Making ethical decisions (pp. 98-116). Marina del Rey, CA: Josephson Institute of ethics.
Mihelic, K. K., Lipicnik, B., & Tekavcic, M. (2010). Ethical leadership. International Journal of Management & Information Systems (IJMIS), 14(5).
Northouse, P. G. (2019). Chapter Twelve: Addressing Ethics in Leadership. Introduction to leadership: Concepts and practice. SAGE Publications, Incorporated.
Seidman, D. (2015). Six key principles for ethical leadership. Retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2015/03/six-key-principles-for-ethical-leadership/