Drugs and Behavior
Discussion Topic – Rohypnol
Rohypnol is marketed as a sleeping pill in Europe and Latin America, has also been used to relieve cocaine side effects, and is legal in over 60 countries. However, in the United States, it is illegal and has never been approved by the FDA for medical use here. Yet it is currently classified by the DEA as a Schedule IV drug, meaning it has low potential for abuse or dependence relative to that of Schedule III drugs; the only lower potential is in Schedule V drugs. How can you explain this?
At least 250 words
**LO1, LO6, LO7, LO9**
Course Materials:Required Text or E-Book: Drug Use and AbuseISBN-13:978-0-357-37595-2Authors : Stephen Maisto • Mark Galizio • Gerard Connors
agitated depression: Depressed mood accompanied by a state of tension or restlessness. People with agitated depression show excessive motor activity, as they may, for example, be unable to sit still or may pace, wring their hands, or pull at their clothes.
akinesia: Slowness of movement and underactivity.
anterograde amnesia: Loss or limitation of the ability to form new memories.
barbiturates: Depressant drugs formerly used as sleeping pills; currently used in anesthesia and treatment for epilepsy.
benzodiazepines: Currently the most widely prescribed anxiolytic drugs.
dyskinesia: Disordered movements.
endogenous: Developed from within. When applied to depression, the term means that depressive symptoms seem to be due to genetic factors.
exogenous: Developed from without. When applied to depression, the term means that depressive symptoms seem to be in reaction to a particular situation or event.
extrapyramidal: Outside the pyramidal tracts, with origin in the basal ganglia. These cell bodies are involved with starting, stopping, and smoothing out movements.
general anesthesia: The reduction of pain by rendering the subject unconscious.
manic: Relating to mania, a mood disturbance that typically includes hyperactivity, agitation, excessive elation, and pressured speech.
narcoleptic: A state characterized by brief but uncontrollable episodes of sleep.
neuroleptics: Tranquilizing drugs used to treat psychoses; a synonym is major tranquilizer.
neuroses: Nonpsychotic emotional disturbance, pain, or discomfort beyond what is appropriate in the conditions of one’s life.
paranoid schizophrenia: A type of schizophrenia distinguished by systematic delusions or auditory hallucinations related to one theme.
psychosurgery: Surgery that entails the cutting of fibers connecting particular parts of the brain or the removal or destruction of areas of brain tissue with the goal of modifying severe behavioral or emotional disturbances.
psychotherapeutic: Exerting a special or unique action on psychological functioning.
rebound insomnia: Inability to sleep produced as a withdrawal symptom associated with some depressant drugs.
REM rebound: An increase in the rapid eye movement or REM stage of sleep when withdrawing from drugs that suppress REM time.
sedative-hypnotic effects: The calming and sleep-inducing effects of some drugs.
tardive dyskinesia: An extrapyramidal complication characterized by involuntary movements of the mouth and tongue, trunk, and extremities; a side effect of long-term (2 or more years) use of antipsychotic drugs.
teratogenic: Producing abnormalities in the fetus.
True or False Questions Answer Key
1. One of the first successful attempts to treat the symptoms of psychological disorders with psychotherapeutic drugs occurred in the 1840s, when Moreau used cannabis to treat individuals with both depressive and manic symptoms.
TRUE. Individuals with depression who were treated with cannabis became more talkative and happy, whereas individuals with manic symptoms calmed down and relaxed. Unfortunately, these effects were temporary.
2. Since the 1950s, the number of individuals hospitalized for psychiatric conditions has decreased significantly.
TRUE. The introduction of chlorpromazine was the starting point of this trend. Other contributing factors include the development of other psychotherapeutic drugs and the movement toward deinstitutionalization.
3. Almost half of the adults in the United States will meet the criteria for a psychological disorder at some point in their lives.
TRUE. Most of these cases, though, are mild, not severe, and typically do not require treatment.
4. The prevalence of psychotherapeutic medication is twice as high among men as among women.
FALSE. The use of psychotherapeutic medication is twice as high among women as among men.
5. Psychotherapeutic drugs are rarely misused.
FALSE. The nonprescribed use and misuse of psychotherapeutic drugs are a significant problem.
6. As with most drugs, the age group least likely to misuse psychotherapeutic drugs is older adults (>age 65 years).
FALSE. Older adults are the age group most likely to misuse psychotherapeutic drugs.
7. Most psychotherapeutic medications are taken orally, allowing for rapid absorption into the bloodstream.
FALSE. Most psychotherapeutic medications are taken orally. However, absorption occurs in the gastrointestinal tract followed by modification in the liver before being absorbed into the bloodstream.
8. Schizophrenia is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in the United States.
FALSE. Schizophrenia affects only about 1% of the population.
9. Stimulants are often used to treat chronic depression.
FALSE. Although stimulants were once used as a treatment for depression, their effectiveness is limited. Antidepressant medications are generally used to treat depression.
10. Because antidepressants are absorbed rapidly, their effects are often immediate.
FALSE. Despite the rapid absorption, the effects of antidepressant medications take 2 to 3 weeks to become apparent.
11. Nitrous oxide (laughing gas) is no longer used by the medical profession.
FALSE. Nitrous oxide is still widely used in dentistry and some types of surgery.
12. The effects of a moderate dose of a barbiturate drug resemble the effects of alcohol.
TRUE. Barbiturate effects closely resemble those of alcohol, as do most depressant drugs.
13. Withdrawal from depressant sleeping pills can trigger rebound insomnia.
TRUE. Insomnia and REM sleep rebound occur after barbiturates or benzodiazepines are used to induce sleep.
14. Withdrawal from barbiturates is similar to alcohol withdrawal.
TRUE. Delirium tremens-like effects characterize withdrawal from all depressants.
15. Benzodiazepines (such as Valium) are one of the most commonly prescribed categories of drugs in the United States.
TRUE. A recent survey revealed that four different benzodiazepines (Valium, Dalmane, Ativan, and Tranxene) are among the most commonly prescribed drugs in the United States.
16. Benzodiazepines are known on the street as “bennies.”
FALSE. “Bennies” are a type of amphetamine, whereas benzodiazepines are considered a depressant. Also, although benzodiazepines do turn up on the street, their prevalence is less widespread than other depressant drugs.
17. Individuals who have a drink of wine at dinner while also taking a benzodiazepine are at increased risk of harmful additive effects.
T Potentiation, or the additive effects of drugs, is a dangerous consequence of consuming more than one depressant drug.
18. The main depressant drugs (barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and alcohol) all act by vastly different physiological mechanisms and affect different areas of the body.
FALSE. Substantial evidence indicates a common mechanism of action for depressant drugs. GABA is one of the primary inhibitory neurotransmitters of the brain, and many depressants are thought to act through this system.
19. Depressant drugs may show cross-tolerance with cocaine.
FALSE. Depressant drugs show cross-tolerance with other depressant drugs, such as barbiturates or alcohol.
20. Alcohol in combination with other depressant drugs is the leading cause of drug overdose deaths in the United States.
TRUE. Alcohol and other depressant drugs produce strong potentiation.
21. Lithium, a natural alkaline metal, is often used to treat manic episodes.
TRUE. Although lithium may have some value in treating other disorders, its use in the United States is approved only for treatment of manic episodes.
22. Psychotherapeutic drugs pose little or no threat to the fetus and may be used safely during pregnancy.
FALSE. There is a considerable range in the relative risks associated with the parent’s use of psychotherapeutic medications while pregnant. Most psychotherapeutic medications have been classified at least as “risk cannot be ruled out.” A few have been classified as “no evidence of risk,” providing some guidance to decision making on this issue.