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Community and Corrections
• 2022SP Penology (CJS-113-275) MOD 3 Assignment
Module 3 Written Assignment

Corrections and the community – Research and address the following in an essay.
• Discuss the three goals of the criminal justice system and reasons that these goals might not be achieved (incapacitation, retribution, rehabilitation).
• Discus probation and parole.
• Discuss factors that authorities consider when considering parole of an inmate.
• What obstacles do inmates typically face when they attempt to re-enter society?
• What are intermediate sanctions?
Writing Requirements
• Your essay must be at least 2 pages and include at least 3 sources.
• Your document must be double-spaced using a 12-point font with 1-inch margins and include your name at the top of the first page.
• Proofread your document to eliminate mechanical and grammatical errors.
• For citations, follow MLA format.

Community and Corrections
The criminal justice system plays different roles: incarcerate, retribute, and rehabilitate—the different types of contemporary criminal sentencing set to achieve our other goals. Retribution entails the form of punishment where the offender receives punishment in proportion to the wrongful act committed. This form of punishment mandates that the severity of punishment equates to the gravity of the crime, more of avenging the victim involved. However, this form of punishment has been subjected to strains of criticism as critics argue that the conditions of punishment are more inclined to punish the wrongdoer more than address the underlying issues that lead to the crime in the first place (Jubaer et al.,8). Secondly, incarceration, this form of punishment involves restricting the offender’s freedom of movement; it aims to remove the offender from society through long-term sentences, life incarceration, or the death penalty. Incarceration is one of the most expensive forms of punishment and is costly for taxpayers. Notably, it leads to high recidivism rates once the offenders are released back to society. Lastly, rehabilitation is a form of punishment that focuses on reforming the offender’s behavior. This is possible through intervention programs, vocational programs, counseling, and skill training. This form of punishment has faced criticism for focusing more on the behavioral aspect than the power of the wrongdoer making choices and decisions.
Probation is the type of sentencing where the offender serves under the supervision of a correction officer rather than doing jail time for the offenses committed. The probation officers oversee to ensure that offenders adhere to the protocols and help to guide them to adjust to returning to the community. On the other hand, Parole offers reduced jail time for the offenders. It allows the offender to return to society under conditional release to work under the supervision of an assigned parole office. In most cases, the offender is offered Parole on the count of good behavior; however, a breach of these rules can lead to the offender being recalled back to prison (Schaefer,282). for an offender To be eligible for Parole, there are several factors to be considered by the parole commission to either grant or deny Parole. Herein are some of the factors to be considered. Firstly, the rights of the victim in question, the safety of the society if the offender is released. The insight regarding the offender’s behavior and motivation to change. Notably, the judge’s sentencing remarks, the offenders’ patterns and criminal history, and the nature of the offenses. Furthermore, the offender’s behavior in prison is another factor of consideration, his safety, warfare, and finally, the possibility of the offender reoffending (Hritz et al.,345).
Reentry and integration back into society by newly released offenders are faced with several challenges. Herein are some of the main challenges: finding employment; with a criminal record, most former convicts find it challenging to secure employment. Additionally, due to a lack of education, they lack the skills required to secure a job following the gaps in their resume. Secondly, another major challenge is stigmatization, whereby ex-offenders are labeled the convicted felon by society, which likely pushes them to recidivate and go back to prison. Some suffer mental health issues due to the increased stigmatization. Thirdly, another major challenge is securing housing (Harford,2019). Most housing developments have structured rules that are not accommodative for persons with criminal records. This is one of the significant downsides faced by perrons reentering the community. Lastly, another major challenge is relapsing, especially for former drug addicts. Intermediate sanctions refer to the available alternative sentencing options between the process of probation and before the final incarceration of an offender. They include Bootcamp prisons, fines, electronic monitoring /house arrest supervised probation.

Works cited
Harford, Joseph Patrick. “Helping and Hindering Factors for Inmates Meeting the Challenges for Successful Community Reentry.” (2019).
Hritz, Amelia Courtney. “Parole board decision making and constitutional rights.” Annual Review of Law and Social Science 17 (2021): 335-351.
Schaefer, Lacey, and Sally Brewer. “Probation and Parole: From Control to Case Management.” Handbook of Issues in Criminal Justice Reform in the United States. Springer, Cham, 2022. 275-290.

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