Assessment Task 1 – Knowledge Questions:
Question 1 – Personal information must always be kept private and confidentiality must be ensured as an AOD worker, however there are exceptional circumstances where disclosing personal information is required. Provide two examples of an exceptional circumstance.
Question 2 – According to the “Alcohol and other drugs – a handbook for Health Professionals” identify the key “principles of care” for people with drug and/or alcohol issues and coexisting issues?
Question 4 – When a client first presents to your service you should gather information about them through a “screen” assessment. Outline a minimum of 4 points of information this “screen” will help you to collect?
Question 5 – Identify a minimum of 5 documents you would provide to the client and use to help you with your initial registration and assessment?
Question 6 – In approximately one paragraph, identify how you would determine a client’s needs are outside of your scope of practice, and what you will do in this instance.
Question 7 – Identify 2 issues for each of the following that a person with Alcohol and Other drugs issues may encounter:
Question 8 – Consider your organisation’s (or that of your professional placement) policies and procedures and identify approximately 3 reasons why you would undertake a risk assessment when a client presents with drug and/or alcohol and co-existing issues and the types of risks you would be assessing.
Question 3 – In approximately one paragraph, identify the role played by Aboriginal AOD services. What services do they provide? Who can access them and who are their target group?
Question 9 – Identify four screening tools that are used to determine alcohol and/or other drugs use. For each tool briefly explain (in a few sentences) their purpose and how you would use them:
Question 10 – In approximately 1 paragraph, outline some of the benefits of standardised screening tools and identify where you can access them:
Question 11 – How would you select the appropriate tools for different situations and client presentations?
Question 12 – Read the following Case Study then answer the questions that follow in approximately one paragraph per question:
Elena is 75 years of age and has recently moved into an aged care facility. Her carers and support workers are worried about her dependency on prescriptive back pain medication and have requested some counselling from an AOD worker.
1. What are some of the ways the worker can gather information about Elena’s dependency, include an example of the assessment tool that may be used and the process you will follow when using this screening tool?
2. What further information does the worker need to find out about the medication being taken by Elena? How will the worker obtain this information?
3. How is a multidisciplinary approach going to assist Elena’s health and type of support? What avenues could be sought to obtain more information about Elena’s health status?
4. What is the main purpose of using assessment tools when interviewing Elena?
5. What information should the worker provide to Elena regarding the issues (at least 4) that can arise from abusing prescription medication, this should also include issues that may arise from taking more than one medication at any one time?
6. What other assessment tool could the worker use to assess any psychological comorbidities that Elena may be experiencing? Explain the process that should be used for this tool:
Question 13 – In approximately one paragraph, explain why it would be necessary to determine a client’s objectives and expectations and at what point would you discuss this?
Question 14 – Identify approximately 4 points of information you need to consider when determining a person’s objectives and expectations of the service:
Question 15 – Read and consider the following scenario then in approximately 1 paragraph, explain if this is professional or unprofessional and why? Outline what you would do in this situation:
A welfare worker worked with a young person for two years. They built up a good working relationship after some initial hostility and distrust. The young person moved to another area and the case was transferred to another office and another caseworker. It has been six months since the first worker and the young person have had contact.
The first worker decides that they would like to know how that young person is doing. They use the client information system from their service to look up recent case notes and find out how that young person is.
Question 16 – The following terms are used to identify the patterns of drug use, can you explain what each of the titles means and provide an example for each?
• Experimental –
• Recreational/social –
• Situational –
• Intensive –
• Compulsive –
Questions 17 – What sort of questions might a worker ask a client to assess their patterns of substance use and level of dependence? Provide 5 examples:
Question 18 – Using the Dovetail Drug and Alcohol Guide (available in your resources on Moodle) as a reference, identify 4 of the tools you may use when undertaking an assessment with a client who is a youth, include the purpose of the tools and what age they are suitable for:
Question 19 – Adolescence is a stage in the lifespan, usually divided into three stages where different developmental changes occur. During these stages of development, young people experience key physical, cognitive and social changes. Provide at least 2 examples of the changes that may occur for each of the following:
• Physical –
• Cognitive –
• Social –
Question 20 – Visit this webpage to answer the following questions:
1. At what age must a youth provide consent for their parents to access their Medicare records:
2. In approximately 1 paragraph, explain what a doctor will consider when they see a patient who is a young person without the attendance of a parent or guardian:
Question 21 – When maintaining client records, you should ensure your case notes are prepared in a way that will enable their reader to clearly understand them, identify some of the ways in which this can be achieved:
Question 22 – When communicating with men and women individually, do you believe it is necessary to adapt your communication style? Explain your answer in approximately 1 paragraph
Question 23 – Consider the following scenario of the mandated client, Travis. Provide an example of what you may say to Travis to encourage his participation:
Travis has been referred to you for an assessment as a condition of his suspended sentence for possessing Heroin. Travis is reluctant to cooperate and feels he doesn’t have a problem.
Question 24 – A client may often come to your organisation voluntarily however still not be willing to actively participate in their recovery, what information will the Stages of change model tell us about this client?
Question 25 – When a client presents to your organisation, what tools and processes would you use to find out the following information:
• Client history and pattern of drug use
• State of client’s current health
• Co-existing issues
Level and length of dependence
Question 26 – What sort of questions might you use to assess your client’s history and pattern of drug use, provide a minimum of 6 examples:
Question 27 – When working with the following client demographics, identify at least 3 factors you may need to take into consideration (identify at least 3 for each):
• Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People
• Culturally and Linguistically diverse people
• Migrants and Refugees
Question 28 – In a few sentences, explain what polydrug use is:
Question 29 – Identify at least 3 common effects of combining the following drug types:
• Cocaine and MDMA/ectasy –
• Speed and alcohol –
• Benzodiazepines and alcohol –
• Ritalin and methamphetamine –
Question 30 – In approximately one paragraph, explain what it means and why it is important to understand the pharmacological aspects of particular drugs?
Question 31 – Using the Drug Information resource as a reference, identify:
• The major drug groups
• Primary Properties (types of drugs)
• The way they are administered
• The effect they can have on the person
Question 32 – Briefly explain why it is important to understand the current and emerging trends in drug types and their use and how you can source this information:
Question 33 – Provide a brief explanation of how each of the following intervention and relapse prevention strategies can assist people with AOD issues:
• Relapse prevention counselling:
• Withdrawal Programs:
• Counselling interventions:
• Rehabilitation services:
• Therapeutic communities:
• Supported accommodation:
Question 34 – Identify the two common stages of withdrawal and provide a brief explanation for each:
Question 35 – Identify 3 withdrawal symptoms people may experience for each of the following drug types: Alcohol:
Cocaine: Amphetamines: Hallucinogens: Heroin: Cannabis: Benzodiazepine:
Question 36 – Briefly explain how each of the following health issues can indicate signs of AOD use: Malnutrition:
• Gastro-Intestinal problems:
• Skin Conditions:
• Dental problems:
• Cognitive abilities and speech patterns:
• Blood borne diseases:
Question 37 – Provide a minimum of 2 examples of the effects AOD can have on each of the following areas of health:
Question 38 – What types of support can be provided to family and friends who are affected by people experiencing AOD issues?
Question 39 – Consider the following case study and answer the subsequent questions:
Tom has been using a combination of drugs over the past six months that includes heroin once or twice a day; marijuana two or three cones a week; and ecstasy every weekend. Tom says that he can’t go out and socialise unless he is high on something.
What signs and symptoms might indicate Tom is using Heroin? What does this scenario tell us about his tolerance and dose levels?
What health issues is Tom at risk of experiencing if he continues with this drug use?
If you were to assist Tom with recovery from his heroin addiction what drug replacement would you suggest and what information would you provide to him in relation to this? Explain the consequences and effects of the substitute/replacement drug?
Question 40 – Identify a minimum of 5 indicators that your client is displaying:
a. Suicide ideation:
b. Self-harming behaviour
c. Intent to suicide
Question 41 – What risk assessment procedures do you need to implement when you recognise the person is at risk of suicide or self-harm:
Question 42 – When undertaking a suicide/self-harm risk assessment, what are some direct questions you could ask the person about ideation (identify at least 4 questions):
Question 43 – Identify a minimum of 4 safety planning considerations an organisation should put in place if they identify someone at risk of suicide:
Question 44 – What are some factors (at least 4) you could discuss with the person to identify their level of risk for self-harm and/or suicide:
Question 45 – What legal and ethical obligations do you have when working with a person who is at risk of self-harm and/or suicide:
Question 46 – Briefly explain when you should negotiate a no-suicide contract with a client and what the aim of the contract is:
Question 48 – Review the Alcohol, tobacco and other drugs in Australia report, available on the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare website https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol/alcohol-tobacco-other-drugs- australia/contents/introduction and answer the following:
• What was the most common principal drug of concern for which clients sought treatment in 2016/17?
• What was the common age of cannabis users in 2016?
• What was the most commonly used illicit drug in 2016?
• How many deaths where benzodiazepines were present were recorded in 2016?
• Cocaine is particularly prevalent among which demographic?
• How is tobacco most commonly administered?
Question 49 – Identify approximately 3 examples of referrals or assistance that may be required for a person with an alcohol or drug dependency:
Question 50– Identify 5 ways that you will uphold your client’s rights when providing services?
Question 51– List a minimum of 4 dot points for each of the of following headings that inform the legal and ethical considerations that should be adhered to in relation to rights and responsibilities:
• Workers have the right to:
• Workers have a responsibility to:
• Employers have the right to:
• Employers have a responsibility to:
• Individuals have the right to:
• Individuals have a responsibility to:
Question 52 – In approximately 1 paragraph explain duty of care and dignity of risk and identify how you will uphold these when providing services.
Question 53 – Briefly explain what the 2015 – 2018 National Alcohol and Other Drug Workforce Strategy is, its purpose and what the strategy’s 12 key outcome areas are:
Question 54 – What arrangements could be put in place if a client you are working with needed to bring their young child/ren to your organisation on a day you are meeting with them.
Question 55 – Identify 3 reasons why it is important to inform clients of your work role boundaries Question 56 – Briefly explain what mandatory reporting is:
Question 57 – Briefly explain what it means to keep a client’s information confidential, then, provide approximately 4 examples of maintaining confidentiality:
Question 58 – Identify the legislation that confidentiality applies to and how this would be implemented in the workplace:
Question 59 – What is meant by the term “informed consent”?
Question 60 – In the National Code of Conduct for health care workers, Clause 15 relates to keeping appropriate records – Identify what is required of a health care worker in relation to this:
Question 61 – The National Code of Conduct for Health Care Workers outlines that health care workers are to provide services in a safe and ethical manner, identify a minimum of 5 requirements a health care worker must comply with in relation to this:
Question 62 – Identify 4 specific AOD acts that are applicable to Alcohol and other Drugs work:
Question 63 – Guideline 7 in the Australian Community Work practice guidelines relates to professional development – Identify what a worker’s requirements are to comply with this guideline:
Question 64 – How does the Australian Community Workers Association (ACWA) Code of Ethics principle in relation to discrimination, impact your practice?
Question 65 – Identify a minimum of 3 reasons why an organisation that works with AOD clients would have Work Health and Safety strategies in place:
Assessment task 1
Doctor-patient confidentiality creates trust thus easy for the patient to disclose his/her conditions to be given necessary health care. However these personal information can be disclosed under some exceptional circumstances like having a patients consent for the information to be revealed and for the overall benefit of the patient’s and public health concerns like in the case where there should be research on the best health care for a given medical condition.
Health care principals have been developed for people with addiction to assist in their recovery and treatment and its outlines the necessary health care required. These principals include:
• Treatment accessibility.
• Person-centered treatment approach.
• Holistic and integrated treatment care response.
• Provision for continuity of care.
• Responsive to diversity.
• Substance dependence is complex treatable condition that alters the brain function and influences behavior.
• Treatment delivered by experienced and qualified personnel.
Aboriginal AOD services provides the indigenous with culturally secure care services to community members having an outreach program to provide health service and programs to individuals and families struggling with alcohol and substance abuse (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultural Protocols, 2015). These services are accessed by the indigenous groups and people affected with the same conditions.
Screening involves asking carefully structured questions with the aim of determining whether an advanced evaluation for a particular disorder or problem is necessary (Alcohol and Other Drugs Assessment Form Clinicians’ Guide, 2018). Data collected through screening is used in the health care provision and these includes:
• Determining the presence of a particular problem.
• The necessary care suitable to be given.
• Determining the developing of a problem like substance abuse.
• Information on risk one may pose to others or themselves.
Medical practitioners are usually subjected by their client health conditions which are not within their scope of profession. Section 2 of APA’s ethic codes prevents a medical practitioner ton practice in the field they are not competent and well experienced to provide the necessary medical consultations. A practitioner can determine this when he gets referrals and during the diagnostic interviews mostly screening and assessments and should be able to take the best action required like asking for help, consulting a profession in that field, talking to the client, adapting to the situation or referring your client to a medical practitioner competent in that field (DeAngelis, 2018).
Alcohol and drug abuse affect the user negatively and may result to the development of health problems. These problem may be physical; damaging vital organs and impaired motor coordination, sensory; impaired judgment and being forgetful, psychiatric; altered perceptions and psychosis and lastly intellectual; forgetful and anxiety.
Risk assessment give the practitioner the medical conditions of the client, harm the clients can pose to themselves and others and accessing the client’s readiness and goals to recover. A practitioner can carry out these with the aim of accessing the risk the client poses to himself or others, impact of the existing condition and the care given if it is relevance the condition at hand.
A number of screening instruments have been incorporated into the care service facilities to assist with the process like the alcohol, tobacco and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST), alcohol use identification test (AUDIT), drug use disorder identification test (DUDIT) and Kessler psychological distress scale (K10) each having a specified purpose (The Adult AOD Screening and Assessment Instrument: Clinician Guide, 2013). K10 screen the generalized psychological test symptoms frequency, AUDIT screens for alcohol dependency, drinking rate and problems, ASSIST screens for substance and related substance use and the DUDIT which screens for drug use levels and substance abuse. These tools such as ASSIST is used for clinical screening, DUDIT for self-screening while K10 and AUDIT can be used in either clinical or self-screening.
Standardized screening tools can be found in AOD agencies and still uphold the doctor patient confidentiality. These standardized screening tools are advantageous in that:
• They are short and user friendly allowing medical practitioners to conclude from the reading on the screen.
• They can be used in non-AOD services.
• Elf completion ability thus client able to take part in their treatment.
• Outcome measurement opportunities to allow monitoring of clients progress.
• Can be used in a variety of setting due to its flexibility.
• Provides holistic and comprehensive readings.
Screening tool to be used during the AOD screening have to be considerate of an individual characteristic such as age, gender, culture, ethnicity education, economic status and gender (Considerations when selecting a screening tool, 2018). Having this consideration in mind the clinician can determine the best screening tool for the client condition to be accessed with within the time frame provided and the period of exposure to alcohol and substance abuse.
In Elena’s case DUDIT will be used as it I used for screening other drug usage apart from alcohol and with it self-screening approach it is easier to score the Elena’s score to the level of the effects on the pin relieving med.
The worker need to know how long Elena have been using these medicines, the effects it have on her body and whether she has been addicted. These information can be accessed with her consent to the practitioner to access her medical records.
Multidisciplinary approach will assist the care givers to get access to Elena medical records, get familiar with her condition and formulate the best treatment to be provided to her to assist in her recovering from the pain drug dependency. Her record can be accessed from her medical history which will require her consent and be in contact with her initial care givers and doctors.
Using assessment tools provides the clinician with the information they require to know the best approach for the treatment, the client’s goals and objective to the recovery of using these pain meds and helping the client to participate in her treatment.
Elena should be provided with concise effects of her conditions, effects of the drugs and effects it may have on her if the usage is prolonged. Elena’s condition may lead to:
• Drug use levels.
• And the harm to her body in using a different drug.
The K10 tools will play a vital role in determining psychological distress scale through the clinician approach to be able to ascertain the frequency and it intensity which may be used to generalize the symptoms.
Client’s objectives and expectations are used to provide clinician with the amount of effort they need to put towards the recovery of the client and inclusion of their participation towards their recovery process. This should be discussed from the first step in the care service so as the clinician can be able to monitor the progress, dedication and effort of the client towards recovery.
Client’s objectives and expectations are set to help with the treatment of the client and several information like:
• If the objectives and expectations are realistic or safe.
• contribution to the recovery and treatment of the client
• Kind of treatment a client prefers.
• Screening of past and present alcohol and substance.
This is unprofessional as the first doctor should have follow up activities on the patient treatment process and got access to his medical files without his consent thus breaching APA ethic code as he is no longer his patient. I would have followed up on the patient treatment progress and keep in contact with his new care giver (DeAngelis, 2018). Ethical conduct of care giver encourage a clinician to follow up on his/her client’s progress even in the event of referral to another practitioner.
• Experimental- drug used for a short period of time usually motivated by curiosity
• Recreational/social- drugs whose use is regulated in a social setting e.g. alcohol
• Situational- these are used for a specified reason e.g. pain meds.
• Intensive-usage in high dosage.
• Compulsive-frequent dosage leading to withdrawal
To get a more informed insight of the clients past, the worker considers asking questions related to:
• Checklist concerning substance abuse symptom.
• Severity checklist.
• Formal screening stool working around denial.
• Urine, saliva and hair samples screen.
• Trauma screening.
Assessment of youth with AOD is done using several tools depending on the condition and suitability of the tool (Considerations when selecting a screening tool, 2018). These include:
• Severity of dependence scale. Used to assess youth under 16 years and it focuses on determining the dependency level on a drug.
• HEADSS used for adolescent youth and its purpose is to assess psychosocial characteristics.
• K1O screening tool. Suitable for youth over 16 year and it determines the unspecified psychological distress.
• DASS-21. Used for youth above 16 years and it’s a scale for determining the level of depression, anxiety and stress.
• Increase in weight.
• Change in skeletal structures.
• Increased mental illness sensitivity.
• High level cognitive functioning development (Physical, social, emotional and cognitive development, 2013).
• Personal identity.
• Sense of belonging.
Youth should be aged 14 and above for him or her to give medical records consent.
The doctor should assess the mental capacity of the child to provide consent to the medical treatment required. He must consider maturity level, the weight of the presented illness, patients understanding of the condition and family problem and which in most instances parental support is encouraged.
Keeping records of a case report is important to a clinician but clients understanding of his/her own assess records is also important in their participation towards their treatment. The records should be written in impartial, complete and accurate manner to ensure easy comprehension and conclusion.
Communication skills are vital in every field of practice thus when addressing men and women individually I will have to adapt to a communication style that will best suit the crowd and the information I want to pass. Different gender crowd have different preference they wish to be communicated to with hence style should be considered and adapted.
Travis being ashamed to own his condition will make it difficult for the required care to be given hence to help him I will have to council him on the importance of accepting his condition and how much it will be of help in his treatment and recovery. Telling him addiction is a treatable condition and there are programs in place to help with this condition will help trigger his participation towards our care.
There are 5 stages of change and are important in determining the effort and care to be directed to the client to facilitate their recovery. These stages: pre-contemplation stage; clients show no signs behavioral change, contemplation stage; client aware of his condition bust still is not willing to change, preparation; considers taking a step towards change, action; behavior modification and maintenance stage where there is adoption of new behavior which determines if the client will relapse to the previous behavior (Crane, 2013).
Screening tools on AOD are necessary in the AOD service care as the clinician can easily establish the base line of a person condition and determine the best care to be given to the client. Client history and pattern of drug use can be assessed through the ASSIST, state of client current and co-existing health issues can be assessed using DUDIT, level and length of dependency can be assessed with the DSM-IV tool. This would be effective when clinical approach is adapted with the doctor asking more questions for clarity.
• Drug used in the last 30 and how frequent it have been used (Alcohol and Other Drugs Assessment Form Clinicians’ Guide, 2018).
• When was the first usage of the drug?
• Any past attendance of AOD care services and when?
• The treatment given?
• The length which he/she attended?
• How helpful the treatment was?
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island people
• Their cultural and intellectual property.
• Their principals.
• Secrecy and confidentiality.
Culturally and linguistically diverse people
• Their culture.
• Language to best communicate with.
• Inclusion of their cultural standards in their treatment.
Migrants and refugees
• Medical history.
• Previous and current condition.
• Any disease they might be infected with.
This is the using of drugs when under the influence of another drug (Polydrug use, 2020). Poly drug use is risky as the effect of one drug is affected by other drugs and the effects depends on the drugs mixed and the amount taken and its overdoses can lead to addiction and in some instances death.
Cocaine and ecstasy
• May lead to death.
• Harmful effects to the heart.
• Long term effects on physical and mental health.
Speed and alcohol
• Alcohol poisoning.
• Increased hangover intensity.
• Development of physical and psychological dependencies.
Benzodiazepines and alcohol
• Mood swing.
• Severe depression.
• Memory loss (Alyssa, 2020)
Ritalin and methamphetamine
• Increased energy.
• Difficulty in breathing.
• Severe mental health effects.
Pharmacology aspects of a drug allows an individual to understand the effects a particular drug have on a person. This is importance as it allows an individual to come up with ‘drug to fight diseases, understand why the different response to drugs by different people increase drug effectiveness and reduce it side effects.’
There are different classifications of drugs with the major groups being depressants, hallucinogens and stimulants (Types of drugs, n.d).
• Stimulants. This drug speeds up the function of the nervous system. These are drugs like caffeine, cocaine, ecstasy etc. and administered orally. They cause agitation, increased heart beat rate and blood pressure, lack of sleep and loss of appetite.
• Hallucinogens. This affect mind perception to reality and they include cannabis, LSD, ketamine etc. and are administered through smoking and injections. They cause hallucinations, confusion, memory loss, anxiety, increased heart rate etc.
• Depressant slower the reaction between the central nervous system and the body thus being lazy, lack coordination and concentration. These are like alcohol, cannabis, ketamine and opioids and they can be administered orally, injection and smoking.
Other common groups include the inhalants, analgesics, opioids and party drugs.
Developing trends in drug use are important as they allow an individual to understand the effects developing drugs have on its users and the cause for their emergence. Drug like salvia, bath-salt and bromo-dragon fly are some of the emergence drugs as they are misused compared to their use in the past ( Khey at al, 2014). Salvia is used by recreational users as a psychoactive drug, bath salt have similar effects to that of cocaine and phentermine causing increased energy, libido and alertness to their users and lastly bromo-dragon fly which us a powerful hallucinogen. These drugs have reached recreational users through the internet, media and fellow user and these are the places to source these information and at point of medical care, doctors.
• Relapse prevention counselling make the client aware of the possibilities of falling into a relapse and the need to have strategies and dedication towards the treatment to prevent relapsing.
• Withdrawal programs allow close monitoring of the client with the clinicians to get familiar with the severity of the clients condition and come up with new care strategies to assist their clients effectively.
• Counselling interventions make the client aware of their conditions and assure them it is treatable and trigger them toward participation in their treatment to avoid relapsing.
• Rehabilitation services are in severe cases as the client is enclosed in a rehabilitation center with experts and passed through programs to get their minds of drugs and realize their dependency problems.
• Pharmacotherapy makes a client aware of the effects drugs have on their bodies thus make sound decisions concerning the drug use.
• Therapeutic communities divert a client mind from relapse triggers thus giving them positive thoughts.
• Supported accommodation allows a client to be in the presence of a support group thus preventing relapse triggers like loneliness (Parisi, 2019).
Stage 1- clients realizes the presence of a problem and make decision to quit. Clients accepts the existing condition and decides on quitting (Polansky, 2020).
Stage 2- withdrawal symptoms emerge after the prior symptom appears. This occurs a period from the last use and it depends on the severity of the addiction.
• Psychotic episodes.
• Fatigue and intense sleep.
• Aches and pains.
• Increased appetite.
• Anxiety disorder.
• Mood swing.
• Lack of sleep.
• Abstinence syndrome.
Gastro-intestinal problems related with AOD mimic conditions like inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome hence its diagnosis can indicate AOD.
Skin conditions like wrinkles, dark spots, chapped and peeling lips, uneven skin tone and blotchiness can be indicators of drug use as it also affects the skin (How drug abuse destroys your skin and complexion,2018).
Dental problems indication drug use are like scurvy, rotting of the enamel and nutritional deficiencies affecting gums and teeth.
Cognitive abilities and speech pattern are also affected as most drugs suppress the coordination of the brain with the body thus slow to response leading to poor motor coordination, lack of balance and sluggish speech (Juarez-Portilla, 2018).
Blood borne diseases like high blood pressure and BBI can also be indicators of drug use especially alcohol abuse.
• Criminal behavior.
Families and friends who have relatives affected by AOD share the same feeling as those affected hence they must be provided with relevant support to help them overcome the condition of their loved one. These supports may include family drug help and education, family drug support and lastly parenting support tool kit for AOD (Family and peer support in AOD treatment in Victoria, 2017). These will assist the clients’ friends and families to cope with the situation and participate in the treating and recovery.
The antisocial behavior of tom indicates the use of heroin and he is addicted and have a low tolerance towards resisting it and the continuous usage will lead to acute addiction and dependence.
Tom poly drug use behavior can lead to mental problems, intoxications and even death as these drugs are on their own harmful to health.
Tom conditions can be treated with the use of methadone regulated dosage to suppress the effects of the heroin in the brain. Methadone side effects include nausea, vomiting, sexual dysfunction, itchy skin and restlessness (Pros and cons of methadone, 2020).
• Talking about death.
• Giving out precious possessions.
• Reduced social contact.
• Increased risky behavior.
• Withdrawal from normal routine.
• Withdrawal from friends.
• Fresh mark on the body.
• Excuses for injuries.
• Changes in routine patterns.
Self-harming behavior and suicidal ideation are signs of depression and loneliness hence to assist people displaying this kind of behavior one should show care, concern and understanding while conversing with them and giving them the support they need to overcome these thoughts. Reaching out and being concerned about them will help in avoidance of this thoughts.
• Asking them how things are going and their feelings.
• Ask if they have suicidal thoughts.
• reasons for their self-harm,
• Asking what to do to be of help.
• Listing warning signs indicating development of suicidal thoughts (Safety plans to prevent suicide, 2019).
• Listing the coping strategies.
• Listing people and places who can act as distractors.
• Listing people to be contacted in the event of a crisis.
• Listing the mental health facilities that could be of assistance.
• When did you first have the thoughts?
• Factors that led to the development of such thoughts?
• If there were previous attempts for suicide?
• Specific plan for suicide?
• How their future seems to them?
• Gathering information.
• Taking action to ensure proper care is given.
• Be involved in the treatment and service care.
• Accessing supervision.
• The client have the capacity to make their own decisions unless proven otherwise.
• The care given should not be the most restrictive (Sarkar, 2018).
No-suicide contracts are agreements outlining what a person is supposed to do in case of suicidal thoughts and it should be negotiated when a person displays suicidal behavior and during the employment agreement. The aim of this agreement is to sensitize on individuals not to die through suicide and allowing the person to attain help if they start to feel suicidal (Caruso, 2018).
• 14 years
• 562 deaths
• 18+ years
• Through smoking.
• Detoxification services.
• Professional services.
• Drug testing services (AOD referral options, n.d).
Client’s right can be practiced by a care giver through:
• Giving them choice.
• Communication thus being informed about the treatment.
• Right to privacy and confidentiality.
• Giving them care from a qualified staff.
Workers have the right to:
• safety and health representation
• Notified on outcome on any health related issue reported.
• Refuse to work when there is a justifiable reason.
• Have a conducive and healthy working environment (Employees – your rights and responsibilities, 2020).
Workers have the responsibility to:
• Ensure own safety and health.
• Report any injuries or health hazards to the employer.
• Cooperation with the employer.
• Follow health and safety instructions.
Employers have the right to:
• Access information related to potential hazards
• A safe work environment.
• Refuse endangering work to their employees.
• Participation in workplace inspection.
Employers have responsibility to:
• Ensuring staff understand their role.
• Providing protective gear and tool.
• Offering return program to worker in case of an injury.
• Keeping records of all work place injuries.
Individuals have the right to:
• Health care services
Individuals have responsibilities to:
• Follow instructions.
• Accept consequences.
• Show respect and consideration (Individual rights and responsibilities, 2014).
• Ask questions.
Duty of care is the legal responsibilities mandated to care providers, their staff and workers not to give their clients care that might harm them. Dignity of risk is the dignity to make own decision as well as others in taking certain risks. Dignity of risk and duty of care can be uphold through encouraging our clients to exercise their choices and control, safeguarding their vulnerability and respecting their choices (Duty of care and the dignity of risk, 2020).
This workforce strategy was aimed at improving the skills of AOD workforce in preparation for the future and its purpose was to guide towards workforce development. The strategy’s 12 key outcome area are to understand the specialist AOD prevention and treatment workforce, match roles with appropriate capabilities, improving child and family sensitive practices, creation of a sustainable AOD workforce, developing capacity to cater for aged AOD client, promoting the ability of education sector towards prevention and reduction of AOD harm, continual development of criminal justice workforce to reduce and prevent AOD harm, increasing the capacity of AOD response towards the; LGBT, aboriginal and Torres strait islander people and the CALD groups, ‘ Enhance capacity to cater for older AOD clients as well as those with co-and multiple morbidities and other complex needs,’ improve clients participation in AOD service policy, planning and provision and creating a sustainable AOD specialist prevention treatment and workforce through addressing recruitments and retention issues (National Alcohol and other Drug Workforce Development Strategy 2015–2018, 2015).
Arrange for a screening assessment to determine any sign of violence, mistreatment or any underlying disease.
Arrange for family support services in the clinic.
Arrange for psychiatric consultation for the parent and their children to access the children view in their parent’s condition.
Workplace boundaries are vital between the care giver and the clients to ensure confidentiality of the information obtained by the clinician, privacy even for the other clients recorded data and duty of care which for any person who is reasonably affected (Building Good Boundaries in Support Work, 2017).
This is the legal requirement to report to the appropriate child protection authorities a reasonable belief of child physical or sexual abuse.
Confidentiality of keeping of other persons acquired private or personal data private. Examples are doctor/patient confidentiality, Therapist/patient confidentiality, accountant/client confidentiality, HR consultant/client confidentiality etc. (Confidentiality, n.d).
Patient’s confidentiality is a right and confidentiality agreement as legal binding document which when reached can lead to law suit. Confidentiality can be implemented through the signing of legal binding document between the care giver and the clients.
This is the permission a patients gives the doctor to perform a procedure after he/she have been explained the reasons for the procedure (Wagner. 2020).
This clause requires the health worker to maintain accurate, legible and updated client records, take necessary consideration for the client to access his/her records when requested and availability of the client records when requested by client or their legal representatives (National Code of Conduct for Health Care Workers, n.d).
This clause requires the health care worker to:
• Take appropriate and timely measure to prevent further harm to the client incase adverse events occur during treatment (National Code of Conduct for Health Care Workers, n.d).
• Ensure availability of appropriate first aid in case of any catastrophic event.
• Obtain appropriate emergency assistance necessary.
• Report to the appropriate authority in case of any event occurring.
• Disclose the catastrophic event to the client and take appropriate remedial measures.
• Mental health act 2014.
• Children, youth family act 2005.
• Drug, poison and controlled substances act 1981.
• Severe substance dependence treatment act 2010 (Alcohol and other drug legislation in Victoria, n.d).
The worker is required to:
• Identify knowledge and skill gap and remedy for them through means like training.
• Pursue appropriate professional support to address on professional limitations.
• Share data and knowledge with colleagues.
• Analyze critically all the necessary aspects related to the community work role.
• Keep up to date current research, models of practice, and theory.
• It allows diversity in all the practices.
• ‘Means of communication that is understandable to all the workers and clients to be adopted.’
• It challenges discriminative organization behavior and services thus being equally treated.
• Engages individual in collaborative knowledge building to reduce the level of discrimination.
This act prevents discrimination in the work place thus ensuring conducive professional practice.
• To foster development of positive attitudes appropriate for the response of AOD cases.
• Support the AOD related workers.
• To ensure AOD workers are covered with health benefits of the organization in which they work with.
Alcohol and Other Drugs Assessment Form Clinicians’ Guide. (2018). Home. https://www.wanada.org.au/index.php?option=com_docman&view=download&al IAS=13-alcohol-and-other-drug-assessment-clinicians- booklet&category_slug=resources- for-the-alcohol-and-other-drug-aod- sector&Itemid=265
AOD treatment for Aboriginal people in Victoria. (2017). health.vic. https://www2.health.vic.gov.au/alcohol-and-drugs/aod-treatment-services/aod- treatment-services-for-aboriginal-people
Alyssa. (2020, January 16). The dangers of mixing Benzos and alcohol. Banyan Detox Stuart. https://www.banyanstuart.com/2020/01/16/dangers-of-mixing-benzos-and- alcohol/
Australian Community Work Practice Guidelines. (n.d.). Australian Community Workers Association | ACWA. https://www.acwa.org.au/resources/ACWA-Practice-guidelines- Feb-2017.pdf
Alcohol and other drug legislation in Victoria. (n.d.). https://www2.health.vic.gov.au/alcohol- and-drugs/aod-policy-research-legislation/aod-legislation
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultural Protocols. (2015). you and Oxfam, tackling poverty together. https://www.oxfam.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/2015-74-ATSI- Cultural-Protocols-update_WEB.pdf
Building Good Boundaries in Support Work. (2017). Queensland Health. https://www.health.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/381060/boundaries_pr o.pdf
Confidentiality. (n.d.). https://sielearning.tafensw.edu.au/MCS/CHCAOD402A/chcaod402a_csw/knowle dge/confidentiality/confidentiality.htm
Crisis Referral Tool for AOD Services. (n.d.). Home. https://www.wanada.org.au/index.php?option=com_docman&view=download&al IAS=6-crisis-referral-tool-for-alcohol-and-other-drug- services&category_slug=resources- for-the-alcohol-and-other-drug-aod- sector&Itemid=265
Commonly used drugs charts. (2020, August 28). National Institute on Drug Abuse. https://www.drugabuse.gov/drug-topics/commonly-used-drugs-charts
Duty of care and the dignity of risk. (2020, April 14). Interchange WA. https://www.interchangewa.org.au/interchange-news/duty-care-dignity-risk/
Caruso, K. (2018). No-suicide contracts – What they are and how to use them – no-suicide contracts – Suicide.org! Suicide.org: Suicide Prevention, Suicide Awareness,
Client rights and responsibilities. (n.d.). Hearing Services Program. https://www.hearingservices.gov.au/wps/portal/hso/site/eligibility/clientinfo/he aring_services_available_through_the%20program/client_rights_responsibilities/! UT/p/a1/
Capacity and health information. (2010, August 17). ALRC. https://www.alrc.gov.au/publication/for-your-information-australian-privacy-law- and-practice-alrc-report-108/68-decision-making-by-and-for-individuals-under-the-age- of-18/capacity-and-health-information/
Case notes. (n.d.). Home – AASW – Australian Association of Social Workers. https://www.aasw.asn.au/document/item/2356
Culturally and linguistically diverse communities’ conference. (2011). Australian Human Rights Commission. https://humanrights.gov.au/about/news/speeches/culturally-and- linguistically-diverse-communities-conference
Considerations when selecting a screening tool. (2018, September 21). Ages and Stages. https://agesandstages.com/resource/considerations-selecting-screening-tool/
CHC. (n.d.). https://aspire-solidus-production.s3-ap-southeast- 2.amazonaws.com/assets/CXAOD001/samples/CXAOD001.pdf
Comprehensive Alcohol and other Drug Workforce Development in Western Australia: (2017). Home. https://wanada.org.au/index.php?option=com_docman&view=download&alias=1 00-wanada-MHC-comprehensive-workforce-development-report- 2017&category_slug=reports&Itemid=265
Disclosing patients’ personal information: A framework. (n.d.). GMC. https://www.gmc- uk.org/ethical-guidance/ethical-guidance-for-doctors/confidentiality/disclosing-patients- personal-information-a-framework
DeAngelis, T. (2018, May). What should you do if a case is outside your skill set? https://www.apa.org. https://www.apa.org/monitor/2018/05/ce-corner
Effects of mixing cocaine and MDMA | Delamere rehab. (2021, March 2). Delamere. https://delamere.com/addiction-treatment/drugs/cocaine-addiction/mixing- with-mdma
Employees – your rights and responsibilities. (2020, July 7). Department of Mines, Industry Regulation and Safety Western Australia. https://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/worksafe/employees-your-rights-and- responsibilities
Family and peer support in AOD treatment in Victoria. (2017). health.vic. https://www2.health.vic.gov.au/alcohol-and-drugs/aod-treatment- services/family-and-peer-support-aod-treatment
How drugs affect your body. (2017). Better Health Channel. https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/HealthyLiving/How-drugs-affect- your-body
Health and behavioral risks of alcohol and drug use: Washington and Lee University. (2020). https://my.wlu.edu/student-life/health-and-safety/student-health-and- counseling/health-library/alcohol-and-other-drugs/health-and-behavioral-risks-of- alcohol-and-drug-use
How drug abuse destroys your skin and complexion. (2018, June 23). Dual Diagnosis. https://dualdiagnosis.org/drug-addiction/how-drug-abuse-destroys-your-skin- and-complexion/
Individual rights and responsibilities. (2014). Fort Worth Hospital, Medical Services in Burleson, Texas – Texas Health Huguley. https://www.texashealthhuguley.org/patients- visitors/your-rights-and-privacy/individual-rights-and-responsibilities
Juarez-Portilla, C., Molina-Jiménez, T., Morin, J., Roldán-Roldán, G., & Zepeda, R. C. (2018). Undefined. Health and Academic Achievement. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.71842
Khey, D. N., Stogner, J., & Miller, B. L. (2013). Case studies of emerging drugs: Salvia, bath salts, and bromo-dragonfly. Emerging Trends in Drug Use and Distribution, 53- 73. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-03575-8_4
Mental health and substance use disorders. (2019, March 22). MentalHealth.gov. https://www.mentalhealth.gov/what-to-look-for/mental-health- substance-use-disorders
Mandatory reporting. (n.d.). DHHS Service Providers. https://providers.dhhs.vic.gov.au/mandatory-reporting
National Code of Conduct for Health Care Workers (Queensland). (n.d.). Queensland Health. https://www.health.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0014/444101/national-code- conduct-health-workers.pdf
Preparing for the five stages of alcohol & drug withdrawal. (2019, October 18). 1st Step Behavioral Health. https://firststepbh.com/addiction-treatment/drug-withdrawal/
Parisi, T. (2019, October 8). The top 10 relapse prevention skills. Addiction Center. https://www.addictioncenter.com/community/top-10-relapse-prevention-skills/
PRACTICE GUIDELINE FOR THE Assessment and Treatment of Patients with Suicidal Behaviors. (2010). Psychiatry Online. https://psychiatryonline.org/pb/assets/raw/sitewide/practice_guidelines/guidelines /suicide.pdf
Pros and cons of methadone. (2020, February 3). American Addiction Centers. https://americanaddictioncenters.org/methadone-addiction/pros-cons
Polydrug use. (2020, January 3). Alcohol and Drug Foundation. https://adf.org.au/reducing- risk/polydrug-use/
Physical, social, emotional and cognitive development. (2013, August 8). FutureLearn. https://www.futurelearn.com/info/courses/supporting-adolescent- learners/0/steps/46451
Practice strategies and interventions. (n.d.). Adis QLDADIS. https://adis.health.qld.gov.au/sites/default/files/resource/file/GPG3_Practice_ Strategies_and_Interventionspdf.pdf
Suicide Support – Suicide.org! Suicide.org! Suicide.org! https://www.suicide.org/no-suicide- contracts.html
Safety plans to prevent suicide. (2019, September 25). Centre for Suicide Prevention. https://www.suicideinfo.ca/resource/safety-plans/
Self-harm and self-injury. (2019). Better Health Channel. https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/ConditionsAndTreatments/self-harm
Signs of substance abuse | Drug abuse symptoms and effects. (2020, August 18). DrugAbuse.com. https://drugabuse.com/symptoms-signs-drug-abuse-effects/
Types of drugs. (n.d.). https://www.health.gov.au/health-topics/drugs/about-drugs/types-of-drugs
The emotional impact of drug addiction. (2018, April 9). Alta Mira Recovery. https://www.altamirarecovery.com/drug-addiction/the-emotional-impact-of- drug-addiction/
The Adult AOD Screening and Assessment Instrument: Clinician Guide. (2013, June). https://file:///C:/Users/user/Downloads/Final%20clinician%20guide%20- %20PDF.pdf
WHS rights and responsibilities of employers | Understanding WHS policy | Alert Force. (2019, April 8). AlertForce. https://alertforce.com.au/understanding-whs-policy-what-are-the- rights-and-responsibilities-of-employers/
What is pharmacology? | British pharmacological society. (n.d.). British Pharmacological Society. https://www.bps.ac.uk/about/about-pharmacology/what-is-pharmacology
What are the effects of mixing speed and alcohol? (2019, December 19). Alcohol.org. https://www.alcohol.org/mixing-with/speed/
Wagner, R. A. (2020). What is informed consent? Informed Consent Form and Important. https://www.emedicinehealth.com/informed_consent/article_em.htm
2.2 Schaeffer’s model. (n.d.). Department of Health | Welcome to the Department of Health. https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/drugtrea t-pubs-front9-wk-toc~drugtreat-pubs-front9-wk-secb~drugtreat-pubs-front9-wk-secb- 2~drugtreat-pubs-front9-wk-secb-2-2
4 assessment – Substance abuse treatment for persons with co-occurring disorders – NCBI bookshelf. (n.d.). National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64196/
5.2 key areas in assessment of AOD use. (n.d.). Department of Health | Welcome to the Department of Health. https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/drugtrea t-pubs-front8-wk-toc~drugtreat-pubs-front8-wk-secb~drugtreat-pubs-front8-wk-secb- 5~drugtreat-pubs-front8-wk-secb-5-2
8.4 AOD referral options. (n.d.). Department of Health | Welcome to the Department of Health. https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/drugtrea t-pubs-front8-fa-toc~drugtreat-pubs-front8-fa-secb~drugtreat-pubs-front8-fa-secb- 8~drugtreat-pubs-front8-fa-secb-8-4