A 28-year-old male with opioid addiction
Substance abuse is a medical illness that causes significant impairment in the affected person’s overall health. According to Dugosh et al. (2016), they can be mild to severe in terms of severity, duration, and complexity. Opioid abuse is a growing concern in the United States, but there are effective methods that healthcare professionals can use, as well as effective medications available for the treatment of opioid addiction.
Nerve Pathways (Efferent and Afferent)
According to Yam et al. (2018), the efferent pathways carry signals from the central nervous system, which are the signals that the body sends to tell the brain to perform actions such as blinking. Efferent nerve pathways, on the other hand, play a critical role in the body because they come from outside stimuli and allow the brain to understand what they are sensing, such as changes in temperature (Yam et al., 2018).
Somatogenic pain is a condition caused by somatogenic lesions caused by trauma, infection, or other external factors (Poberezhnyi et al., 2018). In this case, the patient may experience pain as a result of addiction, which can lead to a lower quality of life in severe cases.
Hyperalgesia caused by opioid use causes increased sensitivity to pain and an extreme response to pain, which can occur as a result of nerve damage or chemical changes (Dave, 2018). The patient in this case is under the influence of opioids, which may have caused the condition.
How Naloxone Works
Naloxone is an opioid receptor antagonist that binds to opioid receptors and reverses or blocks the effects of opioids, according to Miller et al. (2022). As a result, in this case, the patient’s naloxone function can help reduce overdose deaths.
A 55-year-old man arrives after collapsing in his backyard. His primary diagnosis is Parkinson’s Disease, which he has had for 12 years.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a heterogeneous progressive neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects older adults; it is estimated that by 2030, approximately 3% of the world’s population over the age of 65 will be affected (Appeadu, M. and Gupta, V., 2022). Bradykinesia is characterized by slowness and speed (or progressive hesitations/halts) as movements are continued. It is one of Parkinson’s disease’s primary symptoms (PD). For a Parkinson’s diagnosis to be considered, you must have bradykinesia as well as either tremor or rigidity ((Bradykinesia (Slowness of Movement), 2022). Bradykinesia is particularly aggravating because it is frequently unpredictable. You may be able to move easily one moment and require assistance the next (Bradykinesia (Slowness of Movement), 2022).
Postural instability in Parkinson’s disease is the inability to balance caused by a loss of postural reflexes, specifically balance reaction, flexed posture, and trunk rotation. Dopaminergic neuronal deficits, comorbid white matter disease, and cholinergic system degeneration all contribute to these motor impairments (Appeadu and Gupta, 2022)
The Extrapyramidal and Pyramidal tracts are pathways that transport motor signals from the brain to lower motor neurons. Lower motor neurones then directly innervate muscles, causing them to move (Extrapyramidal and Pyramidal Tracts, 2022). Tracts pyramidal: Muscle control from the cerebral cortex to the muscles of the body and face (Extrapyramidal and Pyramidal Tracts, 2022). Traits extrapyramidal: They originate in the brainstem and transport motor fibers to the spinal cord. They are in charge of the musculature’s unconscious, reflexive, or responsive control, such as muscle tone, balance, posture, and locomotion. The reticulospinal tract is one of the most important extrapyramidal tracts for controlling lower motor neuron activity (Extrapyramidal and Pyramidal Tracts, 2022).
When we talk about myelinated neurons, we simply mean that the axon is surrounded by a sheath of myelin. The nerve impulse is faster when the axon is covered with myelin sheath. Unmyelinated neurons are those in which the axon is not protected by a myelin sheath. This means that nerve impulse conduction is slower (Differences Between Myelinated and Unmyelinated Neurons | Difference Between, 2022). To better understand myelin sheath, consider it an electrical insulator. Its purpose is to accelerate nerve impulse transmission. Myelin sheath is a lipoproteinaceous substance that surrounds vertebrate axons with diameters greater than.5mcm (Differences Between Myelinated and Unmyelinated Neurons | Difference Between, 2022).